King of Egypt and the Sudan

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King of Egypt and the Sudan (Arabic: ملك مصر والسودانMalik Miṣr was-Sūdān) was the title used by the Egyptian monarch from 16 October 1951 until the abolition of the monarchy on 18 June 1953.

In 1951, the Egyptian Parliament amended the Constitution by Law 176 of 16 October 1951 to provide that the title of the King should be "King of Egypt and the Sudan" instead of "King of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, Sudan, Kordofan, and Darfur".[1] This move came in the wake of Wafdist Prime Minister Nahhas Pasha's decision to unilaterally abrogate the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The change in King Farouk I's title was intended to further Egypt's claims over the Sudan, which had been an Anglo-Egyptian condominium since 1899.[2]

The title had long been used by Egyptian nationalists to emphasize their desire for the unity of the Nile Valley. For instance, expatriate Egyptian students in France greeted Farouk I during his 1937 tour of Europe by proclaiming "Long live the King of Egypt and Sudan".[3] A Member of Parliament is also reported to have cried out "Long live His Majesty, King of Egypt and Sudan!" during Farouk I's coronation ceremony.[4] However, the title had no legal standing prior to 1951, and Farouk I was officially "Sovereign of the Sudan" (not King) until the Wafdist government's decision to change his title.[5] The title "King of the Sudan" was merely ceremonial, as the Egyptian King did not exercise effective control over Sudan, which was administered by the United Kingdom. The British objected to the title and did not recognize it, claiming that Egypt needed to respect the Sudanese people's right to self-determination.[6] Many other countries also refused to recognize Farouk I as "King of the Sudan", notably the United States,[7] as well as the Vatican.[8]

The only other monarch to officially use the title "King of Egypt and the Sudan" besides Farouk I was his infant son Fuad II. The title was used very briefly, as the Egyptian monarchy was abolished on 18 June 1953. Despite its short-lived existence, the title was used as an overprint on numerous Egyptian postage stamps. Many of the currently surviving stamps featuring Farouk I's portrait thus bear the Arabic inscription "King of Egypt and the Sudan".[9]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Whiteman, Marjorie Millace; Hackworth, Green Haywood (1963). Digest of International Law (SNIPPET VIEW). Vol. 2. United States Department of State. p. 64. OCLC 79506166. Retrieved 2010-02-26. The Egyptian Parliament amended the Constitution by Law 176 of October 16, 1951, to provide that the title of the King should be "King of Egypt and the Sudan" instead of "King of Egypt, Sovereign of Nubia, Sudan, Kordofan, and Darfur". 
  2. ^ "Egypt: On the Threshold of Revolution, 1945-52". Country Studies. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. December 1990. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  3. ^ Rizk, Yunan Labib (29 September – 5 October 2005). "The making of a king". Al-Ahram Weekly (762). Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  4. ^ Rizk, Yunan Labib (28 July – 3 August 2005). "Crowning moment". Al-Ahram Weekly (753). Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  5. ^ "Boy Scout into Field Marshal". Time: p. 3. 9 August 1937. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  6. ^ Youssef, Hassan (7–13 March 2002). "Before the fall". Al-Ahram Weekly (576). Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  7. ^ "Farouk's Realm Limited; U.S. Does Not Recognize Him as King of the Sudan". The New York Times: p. 3. 17 November 1951. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  8. ^ "Vatican Disputes Cairo; Denies Having Agreed to Accept Envoy of "King of the Sudan"". The New York Times: p. 4. 1 December 1951. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
  9. ^ "1952 Overprints". Snap Dragon Portal. Retrieved 2008-08-24. 
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Egypt
Style of the Egyptian sovereign
1951–1953
Monarchy abolished
(Office of President of Egypt created)