Kugel–Khomskii coupling

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Kugel–Khomskii coupling describes a coupling between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom in a solid; it is named after the Russian physicists Kliment I. Kugel (Климент Ильич Кугель) and Daniel I. Khomskii (Daniil I. Khomskii, Даниил Ильич Хомский). The Hamiltonian used is: