|Laughing gull in flight|
Chatham, Massachusetts, April 2002. By Tony Phillips.
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The laughing gull (Leucophaeus atricilla) is a medium-sized gull of North and South America. It breeds on the Atlantic coast of North America, the Caribbean, and northern South America. Northernmost populations migrate further south in winter, and this species occurs as a rare vagrant to western Europe. (There was an influx into North-west Europe in late October 2005 when at least 18, possibly as many as 35, individuals occurred on one day in the UK alone.) The laughing gull's English name is derived from its raucous kee-agh call, which sounds like a high-pitched laugh "ha... ha... ha...".
This species is easy to identify. It is 36–41 cm (14–16 in) long with a 98–110 cm (39–43 in) wingspan. The summer adult's body is white apart from the dark grey back and wings and black head. Its wings are much darker grey than all other gulls of similar size except the smaller Franklin's gull, and they have black tips without the white crescent shown by Franklin's. The beak is long and red. The black hood is mostly lost in winter.
There are two subspecies:
- L. a. megalopterus – (Bruch, 1855): West Indies to Venezuelan islands
- L. a. atricilla – (Linnaeus, 1758): coastal southeast Canada, eastern & southern USA, Mexico & Central America
Laughing gulls take three years to reach adult plumage. Immature birds are always darker than most similar-sized gulls other than Franklin's. First-year birds are greyer below and have paler heads than first-year Franklin's, and second-years can be distinguished by the wing pattern and structure.
Laughing gulls breed in coastal marshes and ponds in large colonies. The large nest, made largely from grasses, is constructed on the ground. The 3 or 4 greenish eggs are incubated for about three weeks. These are omnivores like most gulls, and they will scavenge as well as seeking suitable small prey.
Various views and plumages
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden
- BirdLife International (2012). "Larus atricilla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Check-list of North American Birds". North American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- Remsen, J. V., Jr.; C. D. Cadena; A. Jaramillo; M. Nores; J. F. Pacheco; M. B. Robbins; T. S. Schulenberg; F. G. Stiles; D. F. Stot; K. J. Zimmer. "A classification of the bird species of South America". South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- Harrison, Peter (1988). Seabirds : An Identification Guide. Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7470-1410-8.
- Field Guide to the Birds of North America (4 ed.). National Geographic Society. 2002. ISBN 0-7922-6877-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Laughing gull.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Leucophaeus atricilla|
- Laughing Gull - Larus atricilla - USGS Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter
- Laughing Gull Species Account - Cornell Lab of Ornithology
- Field Guide on Flickr
- Laughing Gull Bird Sound at Florida Museum of Natural History
- Laughing Gull videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
- Laughing Gull photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
- Interactive range map of Leucophaeus atricilla at IUCN Red List maps