If the arcs have equal radii, it is called a symmetric lens, otherwise is an asymmetric lens. The vesica piscis is one form of a symmetrical lens, formed by arcs of two circles whose centers each lie on the opposite arc. The arcs meet at angles of 120° at their endpoints.
A lens with a different shape forms part of the answer to Mrs. Miniver's problem, which asks how to bisect the area of a disk by an arc of another circle with given radius. One of the two areas into which the disk is bisected is a lens.
Lenses are used to define beta skeletons, geometric graphs defined on a set of points by connecting pairs of points by an edge whenever a lens determined by the two points is empty.
- Weisstein, Eric W., "Lens", MathWorld.
- Pedoe, D. (1995). "Circles: A Mathematical View, rev. ed.". Washington, DC: Math. Assoc. Amer.
- Plummer, H. (1960). An Introductory Treatise of Dynamical Astronomy. York: Dover.
- Watson, G. N. (1966). A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions, 2nd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
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