Letitia Elizabeth Landon
|Letitia Elizabeth Landon|
Letitia Elizabeth Landon (1802-1838) by Maclise
14 August 1802|
|Died||15 October 1838
Cape Coast Castle
Letitia Elizabeth Landon (14 August 1802 – 15 October 1838), English poet and novelist, better known by her initials L. E. L.
Letitia Elizabeth Landon was born on 14 August 1802 in Chelsea, London to John Landon and Catherine Jane, née Bishop. A precocious child, Landon learned to read as a toddler; an invalid neighbour would scatter letter tiles on the floor and reward young Letitia for reading, and, according to her father, "she used to bring home many rewards." At the age of five, Landon began attending Mrs Rowden's school at 22 Hans Place, which counted among its alumnae Mary Russell Mitford and Lady Caroline Lamb. The family moved to the country in 1809, so that John Landon could carry out a model farm project, and Landon was educated at home by her cousin Elizabeth from that point on. Elizabeth, though older, soon found her knowledge and abilities outstripped by those of her pupil: "When I asked Letitia any question relating either to history, geography, grammar - Plutarch's Lives, or to any book we had been reading, I was pretty certain her answers would be perfectly correct; still, not exactly recollecting, and unwilling she should find out just then that I was less learned than herself, I used thus to question her: 'Are you quite certain?' ... I never knew her to be wrong."
Appearance and character
The following statements from those who knew her give some idea of the woman known as L. E. L.
Emma Roberts, from her introduction to "The Zenana and other works": L.E.L. could not be, strictly speaking, called hand some ; her eyes being the only good feature in a countenance, which was, however, so animated, and lighted up with such intellectual expression, as to be exceedingly attractive. Gay and piquant, her clear complexion, dark hair, and eyes, rendered her, when in health and spirits, a sparkling brunette. The prettiness of L.E.L., though generally acknowledged, was not talked about ; and many persons, on their first introduction, were as pleasingly surprised as the Ettrick Shepherd, who, gazing upon her with great admiration, exclaimed " I did na think ye had been sae bonny." Her figure was slight, and beautifully proportioned, with little hands and feet ; and these personal advantages, added to her kind and endearing manners, rendered her exceedingly fascinating.
William Jerdan, from his autobiography: In truth, she was the most unselfish of human creatures; and it was quite extraordinary to witness her ceaseless consideration for the feelings of others, even in minute trifles, whilst her own mind was probably troubled and oppressed; a sweet disposition, so perfectly amiable, from Nature’s fount, and so unalterable in its manifestations throughout her entire life, that every one who enjoyed her society loved her, and servants, companions, intimates, friends, all united in esteem and affection for the gentle and self-sacrificing being who never exhibited a single trait of egotism, presumption, or unkindliness!
An agricultural depression soon followed, and the family moved back to London in 1815, where John Landon made the acquaintance of William Jerdan, editor of the Literary Gazette. According to 19th-century commentator Mrs A. T. Thomson, Jerdan took notice of the young Landon when he saw her coming down the street, "trundling a hoop with one hand, and holding in the other a book of poems, of which she was catching a glimpse between the agitating course of her evolutions." Jerdan encouraged Landon's poetic endeavors, and her first poem was published under the single initial "L" in the Gazette in 1820, when Landon was 18. The following year, with financial support from her grandmother, Landon published a book of poetry, The Fate of Adelaide, under her full name. The book met with little critical notice but sold well; Landon, however, never received any profits, as the publisher went out of business shortly thereafter. The same month that The Fate of Adelaide appeared, Landon published two poems under the initials "L.E.L." in Gazette; these poems, and the initials under which they were published, attracted much discussion and speculation. As contemporary critic Laman Blanchard put it, the initials L.E.L. "speedily became a signature of magical interest and curiousity." Bulwer Lytton wrote that, as a young college student, he and his classmates would
rush every Saturday afternoon for the 'Literary Gazette,' [with] an impatient anxiety to hasten at once to that corner of the sheet which contained the three magical letters L.E.L. And all of us praised the verse, and all of us guessed at the author. We soon learned it was a female, and our admiration was doubled, and our conjectures tripled."
Landon served as the Gazette's chief reviewer as she continued to write poetry; her second collection, The Improvisatrice, appeared in 1824.
Landon's father died later that year, and Landon was forced to use her writing to support both herself and her family; Contemporaries saw this profit-motive as detrimental to the quality of Landon's work. Mary Mitford claimed that the novels of Catherine Stepney were honed and polished by Landon. 
By 1826, Landon's high reputation began to suffer as rumours circulated that she had had affairs or secretly borne children. (In 2000, scholar Cynthia Lawford published an article in the London Review of Books citing birth records implying that Landon had in fact borne children in the 1820s from a secret affair with Jerdan.)  Details of Letitia's children by William (Ella, Fred and Laura) and their descendants can be found in Susan Matoff 
Landon continued, however, to publish poetry, and in 1831 she published her first novel, Romance and Reality. She became engaged to John Forster. Forster became aware of the rumours regarding Landon's sexual activity, and asked her to refute them. Landon responded that Forster should "make every inquiry in [his] power," which Forster did; after he pronounced himself satisfied of Landon's purity, however, Landon broke off their engagement. To him, she wrote:
The more I think, the more I feel I ought not - I can not - allow you to unite yourself with one accused of - I can not write it. The mere suspicion is dreadful as death. Were it stated as a fact, that might be disproved. Were it a difficulty of any other kind, I might say, Look back at every action of my life, ask every friend I have. But what answer can I give ... ? I feel that to give up all idea of a near and dear connection is as much my duty to myself as to you....
Privately, however, Landon stated that she would never marry a man who had mistrusted her. In a letter to Bulwer Lytton, she wrote that "if his future protection is to harass and humiliate me as much as his present - God keep me from it ... I cannot get over the entire want of delicacy to me which could repeat such slander to myself."
After this, Landon began to "[talk] of marrying any one, and of wishing to get away, from England, and from those who had thus misunderstood her." In October 1836, Landon met George Maclean, governor of the Gold Coast (now Ghana), at a dinner party, and the two began a relationship. Maclean, however, moved to Scotland early the following year, to the surprise and distress of Landon and her friends. After much prodding, Maclean returned to England and he and Landon were married shortly thereafter, on 7 June 1838. The marriage was kept secret, and Landon spent the first month of it living with friends. In early July, the couple sailed for Cape Coast, where they arrived on 16 August. Two months later, on 15 October, Landon was found dead, a bottle of prussic acid in her hand. However, that she was poisoned thereby was a gross assumption. There is ample evidence that she showed symptoms of Stokes-Adams syndrome for which the dilute acid was taken as a remedy. In retrospect is seems almost certain that Mrs McLean suffered a fatal convulsion.
"Do you think of me as I think of you,
|From "L.E.L.'s Last Question," by Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1844)|
Among the poets of her time to recognise and admire her were Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who wrote "L.E.L.'s Last Question" in homage, and Christina Rossetti, who published a tribute poem entitled "L.E.L" in her 1866 volume "The Prince's Progress and Other Poems."
Her reputation, while high in the 19th century, fell during most of the 20th as literary fashions changed. and Landon's poetry was perceived as overly simple and sentimental. In recent years, however, scholars and critics have increasingly studied her work, beginning with Germaine Greer  in the 1970s. Critics such as Isobel Armstrong argue that the supposed simplicity of poetry such as Landon's is deceptive, and that women poets of the 19th century often employed a method of writing which allows for multiple, concurrent levels of meaning.
List of works
- The Fate of Adelaide. A Swiss Romantic tale and other poems. London: John Warren, 1821.
- Fragments in Rhyme. London. The Literary Gazette, 1822-3.
- Poetic Sketches (5 series). London. The Literary Gazette, 1822-4.
- Medallion Wafers. London. The Literary Gazette, 1823.
- Poetical Catalogue of Pictures. London. The Literary Gazette, 1823.
- The Improvisatrice and other poems, with embellishments. London, Hurst Robinson & Co., 1824.
- The Troubadour. Catalogue of pictures and historical sketches. London: Hurst, Robinson and Co., 1825.
- The Golden Violet with its tales of Romance and Chivalry, and other poems. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1827.
- The Venetian Bracelet, The Lost Pleiad, A History of the Lyre and other poems. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1829.
- Romance and Reality. London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley. 1831.
- The Easter Gift, A Religious Offering. London: Fisher, Son, & Co, 1832.
- Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Books. London & Paris: Fisher, Son, & Co., 1832-1839.
- The Book of Beauty; or, Regal Gallery. London: Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1833.
- "The Enchantress and Other Tales." The Novelists Magazine 1 (1833): 90-118.
- Metrical versions of the Odes tr. in Corinne or Italy by Madame de Staël tr. by Isabel Hill. London. Richard Bentley, 1833.
- Francesca Carrara. London: Richard Bentley. 1834.
- The Vow of the Peacock and other poems. London, Saunders and Otley, 1835.
- Versions from the German. London. The Literary Gazette, 1835.
- Traits and Trials of Early Life. London. H. Colburn, 1836.
- Subjects for Pictures.. London. The New Monthly Magazine, 1836-8.
- Ethel Churchill; or, The Two Brides. London: Henry Colburn, 1837.
- Flowers of Loveliness. London, Ackerman & Co., 1838.
- Duty and Inclination: A Novel (as editor). London: Henry Colburn, 1838.
- The Female Picture Gallery. London. The New Monthly Magazine, 1838 and Laman Blanchard.
- Castruccio Catrucani, a tragedy in 5 acts. In Laman Blanchard.
- Life and Literary remains of L. E. L. Laman Blanchard. London and New York, Lea & Blanchard, 1841.
- The Zenana, and minor poems of L.E.L. London: Fisher, Son & Co. 1839.
- "Miss Icarus" by Roy Chatfield. A one-woman show to have its premier in a rehearsed reading in Andover, Hampshire in October 2012. Performed by Kate Stevens, Music by Tom Featherby and Directed by John Baxter
- "The Love Letter, circa 1816"
- Byron (2004).
- Thomson (1860), 147.
- Though unmarried, Mrs Rowden preferred the title Mrs (Thomson , 148).
- Qtd. in Wu (2006), 1442.
- Thomson (1860), 145.
- Thomson (1860), 151.
- Quoted in Byron (2004).
- Qtd. in Thomson (1860), 152.
- Thomson (1860), 153.
- Catherine Stepney, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, retrieved 5 December 2014
- Lawford (2000), 36-37.
- Matoff (2011)
- Thomson (1860), 164.
- Thomson (1860), 165.
- Thomson (1860), 166.
- Watt (2010)
- Qtd. in Armstrong and Bristow (1998), 286.
- Greer, Germaine. Slip-shod Sybils
- Armstrong, Isobel. "The Gush of the Feminine."
- The Gallery of Engravings Volume II by George Newenham Wright
- Ketter collection
- Armstrong, Isobel, and Joseph Bristow, eds. Nineteenth-Century Women Poets. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1998.
- Blain, Virginia. "Letitia Elizabeth Landon, Eliza Mary Hamilton, and the Genealogy of the Victorian Poetess." Victorian Poetry 33 (Spring 1995): 31-51. Accessed through JSTOR on 21 September 2009.
- Byron, Glennis. "Landon, Letitia Elizabeth (1802-1838)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15978. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Garnett, Richard (1892). "Landon, Letitia Elizabeth". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography 32. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- Lawford, Cynthia. "Diary". London Review of Books, 22:18 (21 September 2000), pp. 36–37. Accessed online 19 December 2013.
- Rappoport, Jill. "Buyer Beware: The Gift Poetics of Letitia Elizabeth Landon." Nineteenth-Century Literature 58 (March 2004): 441-473. Accessed through JSTOR on 21 September 2009.
- Stevenson, Glennis. "Letitia Landon and the Victorian Improvisatrice: The Construction of L.E.L." Victorian Poetry 30 (Spring 1992): 1-17. Accessed through JSTOR on 21 September 2009.
- Thomson, A. T., and Philip Wharton. The Queens of Society. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1860.
- Wu, Duncan, ed. Romanticism: An Anthology. Third edition. New York: Blackwell, 2006.
- "L.E.L - The Life And Murder of Letitia E. Landon - A Flower of Loveliness", Michael Gorman (author), Olympia Publishers, 03/11/2008, SBN-10: 1905513704 - ISBN 9781905513703
- Watt, Julie, Poisoned Lives: The Regency Poet Letitia Elizabeth Landon (L.E.L.) and British Gold Coast Administrator George Maclean: Sussex Academic Press, Eastbourne, 2010. ISBN 978-1-84519-420-8
- Matoff, Susan, Conflicted Life: William jerdan 1782-1869: Sussex Academic Press, Eastbourne, 2011.
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Letitia Elizabeth Landon
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- Thomas, Chas. W. "Adventures and observations on the west coast of Africa, and its islands," London : Binns & Goodwin : E . Marlborough & Co. : Houlston & Wright, 1864. Chapter VI. L.E.L. and Cape Coast Castle—Her marriage—Arrival on the Coast—Reception—Employment—Her death—Inquest—Verdict—Impressions in England regarding her death—Epitaph of Mrs. Maclean—Miss Staunton and L.E.L. -- Points of comparison and contrast, etc. Available online from Internet Archive and Haithi Trust Digital Library
- Biographical information. The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities edited by Robert Chambers. London & Edinburgh : W. & R. Chambers, Vol. II [1888?] : p. 417. "Mrs. Maclean". Available online from Internet Archive