Life in the United Kingdom test
The Life in the United Kingdom test is a computer-based test constituting one of the requirements for anyone seeking Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK or naturalisation as a British citizen. It is meant to prove that the applicant has a sufficient knowledge of British life and sufficient proficiency in the English language. The test is a requirement under the Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002. It consists of 24 questions covering topics such as British values, history, traditions and everyday life. The test has been continuously criticised for containing factual errors, expecting candidates to know information that would not be expected of even native-born citizens as well as being just a "bad pub quiz" and "unfit for purpose".
A pass in the test fulfils the requirements for "sufficient knowledge of life in the United Kingdom" which were introduced for naturalisation on 1 November 2005 and which were introduced for settlement on 2 April 2007. It simultaneously fulfils the language requirement by demonstrating "a sufficient knowledge" of the English language.
Legally, sufficient knowledge of Welsh or Scottish Gaelic can also be used to fulfil the language requirement. Home Office guidance states that if anyone wishes to take the test in these languages (for instance Gaelic‐speaking Canadians or Welsh‐speaking Argentinians) arrangements will be made for them to do so. In practice, very few, if any, take the test in a language other than English.
Although initially attending "ESOL with Citizenship" course was an alternative to passing Life in the UK Test, applicants are now required to meet the knowledge of English and pass the test to fulfill the requirements. Meeting the knowledge of English can either be satisfied by having an English qualification at B1, B2, C1, C2 level or a degree taught/ researched in English.
Plans to introduce such a test were announced in September 2002 by the then United Kingdom Home Secretary David Blunkett. Blunkett appointed a "Life in the United Kingdom Advisory Group," chaired by Sir Bernard Crick, to formulate the test content. In 2003, the Group produced a report, "The New and the Old," with recommendations for the design and administration of the test. There was dissent among the committee members on certain issues, and many of the recommendations were not adopted by the Government. Plans to require foreign-born religious ministers to take the test earlier than other immigrants were later abandoned by the then Immigration Minister, Tony McNulty.
The test lasts for 45 minutes during which time the candidate is required to answer 24 multiple-choice questions. To pass the test, the candidate must receive a grade of 75% or higher (at least 18 correct answers out of 24 questions). Testing is not directly administered by UK Visas and Immigration (which replaced the UK Border Agency in 2013), but is carried out by Ufi Limited via a secure web connection. As of 18 October 2014 the cost of the test is £50.
From November 2005 to March 2007, the questions for the test were based on chapters 2 to 4 of the book Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship. The handbook was revised in March 2007 and the test was changed to be based on chapters 2 to 6 of it. The additional chapters covered knowledge and understanding of employment matters and everyday needs such as housing, money, health and education. The third edition of the handbook, Life in the United Kingdom: A Guide for New Residents, was released in 2013 and prompted another change in the test format. The test covered the chapters "The Values and principles of the UK", "What is the UK?", "A long and illustrious history", "A modern, thriving society" and "The UK government, the law and your role".
At the time of the initial introduction the materials were primarily about England, but the second edition of the handbook contained more detail about aspects of life in the United Kingdom which differ in Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. Applicants taking the test receive a version tailored to where they live; for example, candidates in Scotland will be asked about the Scottish Parliament, but not about the Welsh Assembly.
Of the 906,464 tests taken between 2005 and 2009, 263,641 were failed (a pass rate of 70.9%). The results of candidates from countries with a strong tradition of immigration to the UK were variable. The pass rates for people from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States were all above 95%. In contrast, the pass rates for people from Iraq, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Turkey were below 50%. The largest single country of origin was India, with just over 100,000 tests taken and 79,229 passed (79.2%). Furthermore, data available from the 2nd quarter of 2010 to the 3rd quarter of 2014 indicates that of the 748,613 Life in the UK tests taken during this period 185,863 were failed, which means a pass rate of 75.17%. These results initially look comparable to those from previous years. However, the percentage pass rates for the previous version of the test had been rising steadily until the introduction of the new version of the test in March 2013. With the introduction of testing on the new study material from March 2013 pass rates fell to an average of 70%. Analysis of pass rates available for the first 11 months of the new test (from April 2013 to February 2014) show significant variances in pass rate by nationality of origin of those taking the test. For example: Lao 33%, Afghanistan 40%, Syria 67%, Nigeria 69%, India 74%, Canada 95%. The pass rate for those EU citizens taking the test in this period averaged 86% (Austria 71%, Belgium 75%, Bulgaria 84%, Croatia 92%, Cyprus 83%, Czech Republic 93%, Denmark 95%, Estonia 87%, Finland 86%, France 87%, Germany 91%, Greece 91%, Hungary 90%, Ireland 95%, Italy 92%, Latvia 80%, Lithuania 81%, Luxembourg 100%, Malta 100%, Netherlands 81%, Poland 87%, Portugal 80%, Romania 79%, Slovakia 88%, Slovenia 100%, Spain 89%, Sweden 86%).
Upon completion of the test, candidates are not informed of their exact mark. Successful candidates are informed that they have passed and will be given a Pass Notification Letter that they will have to sign, while unsuccessful candidates learn the topics that they should study further. The test may be taken an unlimited number of times until a candidate achieves a pass. Since its inception, there have been numerous instances of fraud and cheating on the test.
Prior to its launch, the test produced considerable speculation in the British media about possible questions. Most of this was not based on factual information about what the test required, and in particular a semi-serious BBC-devised test was often quoted as being the real thing.
Upon its publication, the associated handbook was widely criticised. Particular criticism was reserved for the section on the UK's history, which was described by the Guardian as a "turgid, abysmal piece of writing," filled with "factual errors, sweeping generalisations [and] gross misrepresentations." The UK Border Agency acknowledged that the first edition of the handbook "did not fulfil [its] role particularly well."
In 2011, the government announced its intention to include questions on the UK's history and remove questions on the EU from the test.
In 2012, the New Statesman described the test as mocking Britishness since there was no general agreement amongst the population on what was or was not relevant to culture and history. Every member of the New Statesman editorial team failed the test which was described as irrelevant in determining who will be a good citizen.
In 2013, Thom Brooks launched a comprehensive report 'The Life in the United Kingdom Citizenship Test: Is It Unfit for Purpose?' that revealed serious problems with the current test concerning its being impractical, inconsistent, containing too much trivia and for its gender imbalance.
Errors and inaccuracies in the material
There were many critics of the first edition study materials for the test. Some of the claims in the handbook were factually incorrect, as an article in The Guardian pointed out. Crick justified the errors on the basis that the handbook "was done fairly quickly because we didn't want to keep immigrants waiting for their citizenship." The second edition corrected most of these errors, but a number still remain:
- Claim: The law states that children between the ages of 5 and 16 must attend school.
- Fact: According to Section 7 of the Education Act 1996, children between the ages of 5 and 16 must be educated. This education may be provided at school or otherwise (for example, home education or private tutoring). Many questions state or suggest that school attendance is compulsory, which is untrue.
- Claim: Births must be registered within 6 weeks (42 days).
- Fact: Births in England, Wales and Northern Ireland must be registered within 6 weeks. In Scotland this figure is 21 days.
- Claim: You can attend a hospital without a GP's letter only in the case of an emergency.
- Fact: Although a referral from a GP is normally required, this is not always necessary. For example, other doctors may refer for abortions, and self-referral is possible for physiotherapy, therapy and sexual health clinics. It is also possible to be referred from Accident and Emergency (as opposed to being referred to Accident and Emergency in order to receive the initial emergency treatment). And this only applies to treatment on the NHS - whilst a GP referral is still recommended for private treatment, it is not required.
- Claim: Information about the census is kept secret for 100 years (as opposed to being made available immediately).
- Fact: In fact both are true, and the question is ambiguous. The full set of answers are not released until after 100 years, but generalised information from the census is certainly made available sooner (after all, otherwise there would be little point in the census).
- Claim: That only two groups of people receive prescriptions free of charge.
- Fact: Prescriptions are free for all residents of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Only England has a means-test.
Further information in the current handbook, including the number of MPs in the House of Commons, and the Government's plan to introduce a UK Identity Card, is no longer valid as of the 2010 general election. Nevertheless, candidates are tested solely on their "knowledge of the official Life in the UK Handbook. No appeal will be accepted on the basis of a challenge to the validity of the information contained in the handbook."
The third edition of the study material valid for tests since March 2013 also has some notable errors.
- Claim: that the Gunpowder Plot was led by Guy Fawkes.
- Fact: It was led by Robert Catesby; Guy Fawkes was merely in charge of the handling of gunpowder. Catesby recruited Fawkes into the English Catholics after the latter returned to England from Eighty Years' War (also known as Dutch War of Independence) where he fought on the Spanish side. English forces fought alongside the opposing Dutch.
- Claim: that the Jacobites were defeated at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689.
- Crick, Bernard (2004). Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship. The Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-341302-5. – now out of print
- Home Office (2007). Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship (Second Edition). The Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-341313-3.
- Home Office (2013). Life in the United Kingdom: A Guide for New Residents (3rd Edition). The Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-341340-9.
- Glendinning, Lee (29 April 2006). "Citizenship guide fails its history exam". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "Theresa May 'planning changes to immigrant test". BBC News. 1 July 2012.
- Radhika Sanghani (13 June 2013). "British citizenship test is just a 'bad pub quiz'". Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Justin Parkinson (13 June 2013). "British citizenship test 'like bad pub quiz'". Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- "New UK citizenship testing starts". BBC News. 1 November 2005.
- "Introduction of new rules for people applying for settlement". Immigration and Nationality Directorate. 4 December 2006.
- ""Life in the UK" tests in Scottish Gaelic and Welsh". WhatDoTheyKnow.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "William MacDougall: British Tests for Immigrants". Counterpunch.org. 23 July 2002. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "4872-HO-New&Old-TEXT" (PDF). Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Kenan Malik's debate with bernard Crick on integration". Kenanmalik.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Sam Jones (20 December 2005). "Britishness test for preachers to be scrapped | UK news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "learndirect". Ufi. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "UK government overview of the Life in the UK test". 3 September 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "British citizenship test: One in three immigrants fails". The BBC. 27 May 2010.
- "Life in the UK Test Frequently Asked Questions". lifeintheUKtestweb.com. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Life in the UK Test Pass Rates, Garuda Publications http://www.garudapublications.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Life-in-the-UK-Test-Pass-Rates-2017.pdf
- Life in the UK Test Pass Rates of EU Citizens, Garuda Publications http://www.garudapublications.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Life-in-the-UK-Test-pass-rates-of-EU-citizens-whats-your-perspective.pdf
- Knowledge of language and Life in the UK test results, 2009 to 2014, 30 April 2014 FOI release 30799 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/308769/FOI_30799_Statistics.pdf
- Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster. "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 29 January 2009 (pt 0032)". Parliament.the-stationery-office.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "Article: Life in the UK test – a complete guide to what to expect at your test".
- "We trap the immigration cheats; Albanian gang recruits citizenship bureau worker: Asylum seekers pay [pounds sterling]700 to have test rigged. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 1 June 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "Men jailed for UK citizenship fraud in Sheffield". BBC News. 24 February 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Kemp, Phil (5 April 2008). "UK | UK Politics | How UK citizenship tests are 'abused'". BBC News. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Whitehead, Tom (14 November 2008). "James Bond-style spy gear used to cheat immigration test". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Kemp, Phil (4 April 2008). "UK | UK Politics | School 'helps citizenship cheats'". BBC News. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Travis, Alan (4 September 2003). "Being a good Brit: a user's guide". London: The Guardian.
- "Can you pass a citizenship test?". The BBC. 31 October 2004.
- "Answer to Question 1 (9877)". Whatdotheyknow.com. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- UK proposes tougher English language test for family migration
- Whitehead, Tom (11 October 2011). "Immigrants must pass test on British history, says David Cameron". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Mehdi Hasan (4 July 2012). "Testing makes a mockery of Britishness". New Statesman. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Brooks, Thom (13 June 2013). The Life in the United Kingdom Citizenship Test: Is It Unfit for Purpose? (Report). SSRN .
- "Elective home education - Every Child Matters". Dcsf.gov.uk. 29 November 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "General Register Office for Scotland - Registration - Registering a Birth". Gro-scotland.gov.uk. 23 April 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "Abortion - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Physiotherapy - Accessing physiotherapy - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Accessing therapy - Live Well - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Do I need a referral from my GP to use a GUM/sexual health clinic? - Health questions - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 8 January 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Outpatients | The NHS Information Centre". Ic.nhs.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Referrals". Tst.nhs.uk. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Do I need a GP referral for private treatment? - Health questions - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Life in the UK Test website". Lifeintheuktest.gov.uk. Retrieved 4 January 2011.