Body-focused repetitive behavior
|Body-focused repetitive behavior|
|Classification and external resources|
The main BFRB disorders are:
- Morsicatio buccarum, cheek biting
- Morsicatio labiorum, inner lip biting
- Morsicatio buccarum, tongue biting
The cause of BFRBs is unknown.
Emotional variables may have a differential impact on the expression of BFRBs.
Research has suggested that the urge to repetitive self-injury is similar to a body-focused repetitive behavior but others have argued that for some the condition is more akin to a substance abuse disorder.
BFRBs most often begin in late childhood or in the early teens.
BFRBs are among the most poorly understood, misdiagnosed, and undertreated groups of disorders. BFRBs may affect at least 1 out of 20 people. Trichotillomania alone is believed to affect 10 million people in the United States.
Treatment can include behavior modification therapy, medication, and family therapy. The evidence base criteria for BFRBs is strict and methodical. Individual behavioral therapy has been shown as a "probably effective" evidence-based therapy to help with thumb sucking, and possibly nail biting. Cognitive behavioral therapy was cited as experimental evidence based therapy to treat trichotillomania and nail biting. Another form of treatment that focuses on mindfulness, stimuli and rewards has proven effective in some people. However, no treatment was deemed well-established to treat any form of BFRBs.
- Scientific Advances in Trichotillomania and Related Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., November 4, 2004, National Institute of Mental Health
- AAMFT Consumer Update - Hair Pulling, Skin Picking and Biting: Body-Focused Repetitive Disorders, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
- Trichotillomania (TTM) & Related Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors (BFRBs), The Center for Emotional Health of Greater Philadelphia
- Teng; et al. (2004), "Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors: The Proximal and Distal Effects of Affective Variables on Behavioral Expression", Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26: 55–64, doi:10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007456.24198.e4
- ABC News 20/20 Hair Pulling, 2006
- Families & Health Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
- Diefenbach GJ, Reitman D, Williamson DA (2000). "Trichotillomania: A challenge to research and practice". Clinical Psychology Review. 20 (3): 289–309. PMID 10779896. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(98)00083-X.
- Woods, Douglas W.; Houghton, David C. (13 July 2015). "Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Pediatric Body-Focused Repetitive Behavior Disorders". Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 45: 1–14. doi:10.1080/15374416.2015.1055860.
- Torales J, Barrios I, Villalba J. "Alternative Therapies for Excoriation (Skin Picking) Disorder: A Brief Update". Adv Mind Body Med. 31: 10–13. PMID 28183072.