London (1656 English ship)

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HMS London wreck.jpg
The wreck of London
Royal Navy EnsignEngland
Name: London
Ordered: 3 July 1654
Builder: Taylor, Chatham
Launched: June 1656
Fate: Accidentally blown up, 7 March 1665
General characteristics [1]
Class and type: 76-gun second-rate ship of the line
Tons burthen: 1050 bm
Length: 123 ft 6 in (37.6 m) (keel)
Beam: 41 ft (12 m) (after girdling)
Depth of hold: 16 ft 6 in (5.0 m)
Sail plan: Full rigged ship
  • 360 men in 1660
  • 450 men in 1665
  • 64 guns in 1660
  • 76 guns in 1665

London was a 76-gun second-rate ship of the line in the Navy of the Commonwealth of England, originally built at Chatham Dockyard by shipwright John Taylor, and launched in June 1656.[2] She gained fame as one of the ships that escorted Charles II from Holland back to England during the English Restoration, carrying Charles' younger brother James Duke of York, and commanded by Captain John Lawson.[3][4]

London was accidentally blown up in 1665 and sank in the Thames Estuary.[2] According to Samuel Pepys 300 of her crew were killed, 24 were blown clear and survived, including one woman.[5] Lawson was not aboard at the time of the explosion but many of his relatives were killed.

Active service[edit]

London was launched from Chatham Dockyard in June 1656. She was commissioned in 1657 under the authority of Rear-Admiral Richard Stayner and first put to sea in 1658 under the command of Captain William Whitehorne as acting commander-in-chief of Commonwealth forces in The Downs. Stayner resumed direct command of London in 1659, remaining in The Downs.[1]

The vessel passed bloodlessly back to Royalist hands on the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660. Nominal command was vested in Captain and later Vice-Admiral John Lawson from 1660 to 1664. Thereafter, London was the flagship of Admiral Edward Montagu and directly commanded by flag-captain Jonas Poole.[1]

The ship was lost on 7 March 1665. She had been briefly transferred back to John Lawson's command for the purpose of bringing her from Chatham to the Thames, when her powder magazine was accidentally ignited. The subsequent explosion caused immense damage, leaving little but wreckage on the surface of the river.[6] On hearing of the loss, Samuel Pepys wrote on 8 March 1665 that:

This morning is brought me to the office the sad newes of the London, in which Sir J(ohn) Lawson’s men were all bringing her from Chatham to the Hope, and thence he was to go to sea in her; but a little a’this side the buoy of the Nower, she suddenly blew up. About 24 [men] and a woman that were in the round-house and coach saved; the rest, being above 300, drowned: the ship breaking all in pieces, with 80 pieces of brass ordnance. She lies sunk, with her round- house above water. Sir J(ohn) Lawson hath a great loss in this of so many good chosen men, and many relations among them. I went to the ‘Change, where the news taken very much to heart."[7]

The precise cause of the explosion is unknown. Another letter, this time to Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, passed on coffee-house gossip which blamed the easy availability of gunpowder ’20s a barrel cheaper than in London’ and therefore by implication suspect in provenance and quality.[6] On 9 March, John Evelyn, the other famous diarist of the period, ‘went to receive the poor creatures that were saved out of the London frigate, blown up by accident, with above 200 men,’ for he had been appointed one of the Commissioners for sick and wounded seamen by Charles II.[8]

On 11 March Pepys also recorded the results of an inspection of the wreck by Sir William Batten and Sir John Mennes: "out of which they say, the guns may be got, but the hull of her will be wholly lost."[9] Those guns continued to be the focus of administrative attention for 30 years afterwards: recoveries made in 1679 caused controversy when the salvor attempted to leverage their return as payment of an unrelated debt.[10]

Rediscovery of wreck[edit]

The wreck of London was rediscovered in 2005, resulting in port authorities changing the route of the shipping channel to prevent further damage and to allow archaeologists from Wessex Archaeology led by Frank Pope to investigate.[11] The site where the remains lie was designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 on 24 October 2008.[12][13] The wreck is considered important partly for its historical references and partly for its insight into an important period in British naval history. Although the Port of London Authority had voluntarily taken action to reduce the risk of damage to shipping, the removal of bronze cannon from the site without any archaeological investigations being carried out showed that the site was at risk of destruction through looting and hence required immediate protection.[13][14]

On 12 August 2015, a gun carriage was lifted from the seabed off Southend-on-Sea. Alison James, Historic England’s maritime archaeologist, described the gun carriage as being in near-perfect condition, and important to England's knowledge of its social and naval history.[15][16]


  1. ^ a b c Winfield 2009, p.27
  2. ^ a b Lavery, Ships of the Line vol.1, p160.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 13 January 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Sir John Lawson". The Diary of Samuel Pepys.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ a b "Charles II – volume 114: March 1–15, 1665".
  7. ^ "Diary entries from March 1665". The Diary of Samuel Pepys.
  8. ^ "The diary of John Evelyn;".
  9. ^ "Saturday 11 March 1664/65". The Diary of Samuel Pepys.
  10. ^ "Volume 28: May 16 – July 27, 1694".
  11. ^ "BBC Two – Thames Shipwrecks: A Race Against Time, Episode 1". BBC.
  12. ^ "The Protection of Wrecks (Designation) (England) Order 2008". 13 May 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  13. ^ a b "[ARCHIVED CONTENT] Culture Minister Barbara Follett takes action to protect the wreck of HMS London, sunk in the Thames estuary in 1665". Archived from the original on 23 October 2008.
  14. ^ "Divernet – Diver Magazine Online – SCUBA – Diving – Dive Shows – Gear Tests – Travel – News".
  15. ^ Maev Kennedy. "17th-century HMS London gun carriage lifted from Southend seabed". the Guardian.
  16. ^ Keys, David (4 August 2015). "The London: After 350 years, the riddle of Britain's exploding fleet is finally solved". The Independent. Retrieved 4 January 2019.


  • Lavery, Brian (2003) The Ship of the Line – Volume 1: The development of the battlefleet 1650–1850. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-252-8.
  • Winfield, Rif (2009) British Warships in the Age of Sail 1603–1714: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-040-6.

Coordinates: 51°29′48″N 0°44′23″E / 51.4966°N 0.7397°E / 51.4966; 0.7397