July 7, 1915|
Birmingham, Alabama, US
November 30, 1998 (aged 83)|
For My People (1942) |
Margaret Walker (Margaret Abigail Walker Alexander by marriage; July 7, 1915 – November 30, 1998) was an American poet and writer. She was part of the African-American literary movement in Chicago, known as the Chicago Black Renaissance. Her notable works include the award-winning poem For My People (1942) and the novel Jubilee (1966), set in the South during the American Civil War.
Walker was born in Texas, Alabama, to Sigismund C. Walker, a minister, and Marion (née Dozier) Walker, who helped their daughter by teaching her philosophy and poetry as a child. Her family moved to New Orleans when Walker was a young girl. She attended school there, including several years of college, before she moved north to Chicago.
In 1935, Walker received her Bachelor of Arts Degree from Northwestern University. In 1936 she began work with the Federal Writers' Project under the Works Progress Administration of the President Franklin D. Roosevelt administration during the Great Depression. She was a member of the South Side Writers Group, which included authors such as Richard Wright, Arna Bontemps, Fenton Johnson, Theodore Ward, and Frank Marshall Davis.
Walker became a literature professor at what is today Jackson State University, a historically black college, where she taught from 1949 to 1979. In 1968, Walker founded the Institute for the Study of History, Life, and Culture of Black People (now the Margaret Walker Center) and her personal papers are now stored there. In 1976, she went on to serve as the Institute's director.
In 1942, Walker's poetry collection For My People won the Yale Series of Younger Poets Competition under the judgeship of editor Stephen Vincent Benet, thus making her the first black woman to receive a national writing prize. Her For My People was considered the "most important collection of poetry written by a participant in the Black Chicago Renaissance before Gwendolyn Brooks's A Street in Bronzeville." Richard Barksdale says: "The [title] poem was written when "world-wide pain, sorrow, and affliction were tangibly evident, and few could isolate the Black man's dilemma from humanity's dilemma during the depression years or during the war years." He said that the power of resilience presented in the poem is a hope Walker holds out not only to black people, but to all people, to "all the Adams and Eves."
Walker's second published book (and only novel), Jubilee (1966), is the story of a slave family during and after the Civil War, and is based on her great-grandmother's life. It took her thirty years to write. Roger Whitlow says: "It serves especially well as a response to white 'nostalgia' fiction about the antebellum and Reconstruction South."
This book is considered important in African-American literature and Walker is an influential figure for younger authors. She was the first of a generation of women who started publishing more novels in the 1970s.
In 1975, Walker released three albums of poetry on Folkways Records – Margaret Walker Alexander Reads Poems of Paul Laurence Dunbar and James Weldon Johnson and Langston Hughes; Margaret Walker Reads Margaret Walker and Langston Hughes; and The Poetry of Margaret Walker.
In 1991 Walker was sued by Ellen Wright, the widow of Richard Wright, on the grounds that Walker's use of unpublished letters and an unpublished journal in a just-published biography of Wright violated the widow's copyright. Wright v. Warner Books was dismissed by the district court, and this judgment was supported by the appeals court.
Death and her legacy
Walker was inducted into The Chicago Literary Hall of Fame in 2014.
- For My People. Ayer. 1942. ISBN 978-0-405-01902-9. (reprint 1968)
- October Journey. Broadside Press. 1973. ISBN 978-0-910296-96-0.
- This Is My Century: New and Collected Poems. University of Georgia Press. 1989. ISBN 978-0-8203-1135-7.
- Jubilee. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 1999. ISBN 978-0-395-92495-2.
- Maryemma Graham, ed. (1990). How I Wrote Jubilee and Other Essays on Life and Literature. Feminist Press. ISBN 978-1-55861-004-0.
- Maryemma Graham, ed. (2002). Conversations with Margaret Walker. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-512-7.
Song of My Life: A Biography of Margaret Walker by Carolyn J. Brown, published 2014. This is the first biography of Margaret Walker.
- Knupfer, Anne Meis (2006). The Chicago Black Renaissance and Women's Activism. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
- "Biography - Margaret Abigail Walker". Ibiblio. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- "Margaret Walker Center". Jackson State University. 2017. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
- Robert Luckett (November 1, 2014). "Book review: Margaret Walker biography insightful". The Clarion-Ledger.
- Bradley, George. "Introduction", The Yale Younger Poets Anthology, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, p. 24.
- Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine and Stanley C. Harrold, The African-American Odyssey, Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2011, p. 522. ISBN 0-205-72883-9.
- Barksdale, Richard K. (1973). Modern Black Poets: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice Hall.
- Maida Odom. "Margaret Walker, poet and novelist (obituary, December 1998)". University of Pennsylvania archives. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- Whitlow, Roger (1974). Black American Literature: A Critical History. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0822602781.
- "Smithsonian Folkways - The Poetry of Margaret Walker".
- "Smithsonian Folkways - Margaret Walker Alexander Reads Langston Hughes, P. L. Dunbar, J. W. Johnson".
- "Smithsonian Folkways".
- "Candace Award Recipients 1982-1990, Page 1". National Coalition of 100 Black Women. Archived from the original on March 14, 2003.
- Frankel, D. J. "Margaret Walker ALEXANDER, Plaintiff, v. Alex HALEY, Doubleday & Company, Inc., and Doubleday Publishing Company, Defendants", 460 F. Supp. 40 (S.D.N.Y. 1978).
- Meskill (Nov 21, 1991). "953 F.2d 731: Ellen Wright, Plaintiff-appellant, v. Warner Books, Inc. and Margaret Walker, Also Known Asmargaret Walker Alexander, Defendants-appellees". United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. Retrieved June 27, 2012.
- "Margaret Walker". Chicago Literary Hall of Fame. 2014.