Mark Ludwig

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Mark Allen Ludwig
Alma materMIT, Caltech
Known forComputer virus research
Scientific career
FieldsComputer Virology
Academic advisorsRichard Feynman

Mark Allen Ludwig (August 5, 1958 - 2011) was a physicist from the U.S and author of books on computer viruses and artificial life. Ludwig spent less than two years as an undergraduate at MIT, but was reputedly still able to get into the Physics doctorate program at CalTech on the basis of recommendation letters from his past MIT teachers where he was a classmate of Stephen Wolfram in Richard Feynman's course on advanced mathematical methods for physics. He died from cancer at age 51.[1]


Ludwig had his own virus-writing periodical, Computer Virus Developments Quarterly. He also held the First International Virus Writing Competition, which promised a monetary reward of $200 for the creator of the smallest DOS-based, parasitic file infecter.[2]

His Little Black Book of Computer Viruses fully describes a sophisticated MS-DOS executable virus.[3][4] The second, Giant Black Book of Computer Viruses contains the source code of two UNIX companion viruses written in C[5] In his book Computer Viruses, Artificial Life and Evolution: The Little Black Book of Computer Viruses he argued for intelligent design. The book was criticized by biologist Gert Korthof for making errors and incorrect statements about evolutionary biology.[6][7]



  1. ^
  2. ^ "SUNDAY, MARCH 20, 1994; The Gotcha! Virus". 20 March 1994. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  3. ^ "Description". Archived from the original on 2018-06-13.
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ Wanja Eric Naef. "The Plausibility of UNIX Virus Attacks". Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  6. ^ Korthof, Gert. "Mark A. Ludwig: Computer Viruses, Artificial Life and Evolution". Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  7. ^ Ludwig, Mark (June 10, 2006). "Mark Ludwig's Reply: Intelligent Design Theorist - Fact or Fiction?". Retrieved June 13, 2018.