Martinique oriole

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Martinique oriole
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Icteridae
Genus: Icterus
Species: I. bonana
Binomial name
Icterus bonana
(Linnaeus, 1766)

The Martinique oriole (Icterus bonana) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae. It is endemic to Martinique.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, and plantations.

Description[edit]

The martinique oriole has mainly black plumage with a reddish-orange belly,and grows to 18–21 cm.[2] It makes harsh scolding calls, and whistles. It eats fruit from the canopy, berries and various insects, foraging alone, in pairs or with a group of family members. Breeding is generally observed between February–July, however breeding has been recorded in December.[2]

Distribution and Habitat[edit]

Martinique orioles are found in Martinique, France. They appear in a density of 2.4 birds/ha in central Martinique. The total population is somewhere over 10,000 birds. Originally present in many habitat-types below 700 m, the martinique oriole is now mainly found in mangroves and dry forests.[2]

Status, threats and conservation[edit]

Deforestation has led to recent establishment of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) within the martinique oriole habitat. The shiny cowbird parasites 75% of the martinique oriole nests each year. Another possible threat is from the increase in native Carib Grackles (Quiscalus lugubris) which engage in nest-predation of the martinique oriole.[2]

The Martinique oriole is protected by domestic legislation.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2013). "Icterus bonana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Martinique Oriole (Icterus bonana) - BirdLife species factsheet". www.birdlife.org. Retrieved 2016-09-01. 
  3. ^ Alavaro Jaramillo; Peter Burke (1999). New World Blackbirds: The Icterids. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0713643331.