Mary Phylinda Dole (1862–1947) was an American physician.
Born in Massachusetts, she graduated from Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in 1886. After earning her M.D. from the Women's Medical College of Baltimore two years later, she returned to Mount Holyoke (which in 1888 had become Mount Holyoke College) to receive her B.S. in 1889. She studied in Germany and France before becoming a physician in Connecticut. She was a trustee for Mount Holyoke from 1901-07.