2 October 1912|
Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
|Died||25 December 1973
|Monuments||Maurício Grabois Institute|
|Other names||Mário, Abel, Chico, Velho|
|Alma mater||Realengo Military College, School of Agronomy of Rio de Janeiro|
|Organization||Communist Youth of Brazil, National Liberation Alliance, Communist Party of Brazil|
Maurício Grabois was born on October 2, 1912 in Salvador, Bahia, a city on the northeast coast of Brazil. His parents were Agustin and Dora Grabois. He graduated from the State Gymnasium of Salvador, an elementary school in his city. At the age of 19 he moved to Rio de Janeiro to study at the Realengo Military College (which would later become the Academia Militar de Agulhas Negras). There he became an adherent of Marxism-Leninism and spread communism in the military college.
In Rio de Janeiro, Grabois joined the Communist Youth of Brazil and at the age of twenty-two became its leader. After joining the National Liberation Alliance (Aliança Nacional Libertadora), an organization which gathered anti-fascist military officers he became one of the leaders of the unsuccessful Communist uprising of November, 1935 in Rio de Janeiro, Natal, and Recife.
After the failed uprising, he became the editor of an underground Communist newspaper, A Classe Operária (the Working Class). He was arrested in 1941 and released the following year. The overthrow of Getúlio Vargas resulted in the legalization of Communist organizations of Brazil. In 1945 Maurício Grabois was elected federal congressman and became a member of the Foreign Relations Committee of Brazil.
After the Brazilian coup d'état of 1964, Grabois became a proponent of armed struggle to overthrow the dictatorship. In 1966 the Communist Party of Brazil decided that revolutionary tactics were necessary to overthrow the dictatorship and establish a Communist regime in Brazil. In 1967 Grabois started recruiting guerilla combatants in Pará. After a series of clashes with government forces Maurício Grabois was killed in 1973. Contemporary reports claim he was executed by Major Sebastião Curió; a military report places the date of his death at December 25. His death has yet to be officially recognized by the government.
- Gunson, Phil; Andrew Thompson; Greg Chamberlain (1989). The dictionary of contemporary politics of South America. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 0-415-02808-6.
- Fischer, Brodwyn (2008). A Poverty of Rights: Citizenship and Inequality in Twentieth-Century Rio de Janeiro. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5290-7.
- "Maurício Grabois". Mortos e desaparecidos políticos no Brasil (in Portuguese). Centro de Documentação Eremias Delizoicov. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-04.