Melchizedek priesthood (Latter Day Saints)
In Mormonism, the Melchizedek priesthood ( //) is the greater of the two orders of priesthood, the other being the Aaronic priesthood. The Patriarchal priesthood which is sometimes confused as a separate priesthood was explained by Boyd K. Packer, an apostle in the largest denomination in Mormonism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), as:
The patriarchal order is not a third, separate priesthood. Whatever relates to the patriarchal order is embraced in the Melchizedek Priesthood. "All other authorities or offices in the church are appendages to [the Melchizedek] priesthood." (D&C 107:5.) The patriarchal order is a part of the Melchizedek Priesthood which enables endowed and worthy men to preside over their posterity in time and eternity.
In Mormonism, unlike most other Christian denominations, the Melchizedek priesthood is thought to be held by common mortals and not solely by either pre-Aaronic priests such as Melchizedek, or Jesus alone, as most Christians interpret the Epistle to the Hebrews. According to Joseph Smith, the name of this priesthood became Melchizedek "because Melchizedek was such a great high priest" and "to avoid the too frequent repetition" of the "name of the Supreme Being". Smith taught that this priesthood was on the earth since Adam received it and conferred it upon his sons Abel and Seth, and it was conferred successively upon the early biblical patriarchs. Through it Enoch led his people to become so righteous and obedient that they qualified to be translated as the City of Enoch. Noah held this priesthood, as did Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It remained on earth until the time of Moses, who received it "under the hand of his father-in-law, Jethro" and it would have been given to the Israelites if they had been worthy of it and had not "hardened their hearts".
Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery said they were visited by John the Baptist, who laid his hands on their head and gave them the Aaronic priesthood; Smith described the event in detail and gave an exact date when it happened. In contrast, he never gave a description of any vision in which he saw an angel separately confer the Melchizedek priesthood. However, by the turn of the 20th century, Latter Day Saint theologians believed that such a separate ordination by angels had occurred prior to the organization of the Church of Christ on April 6, 1830. This was largely because the early church organization contained the office of elder, which at least by 1835 was considered an office of the Melchizedek priesthood. As evidence for such a pre-organization angellc conferral, writers referred to a revelation in which Smith said he heard "The voice of Peter, James, and John in the wilderness between Harmony, Susquehanna county, and Colesville, Broome county, on the Susquehanna river, declaring themselves as possessing the keys of the kingdom, and of the dispensation of the fulness of times!" Smith and Cowdery were visited by the three angels in 1829 and that they conferred the Melchizedek priesthood in the same way John the Baptist had conferred the Aaronic priesthood. However, the official church history, supervised or written by Smith, states that "the authority of the Melchizedek priesthood was manifested and conferred for the first time upon several of the Elders" during a General Conference in early June 1831. When Smith's official history was first published in 1902, the compiler B.H. Roberts thought that this was a mistake, because it would not be consistent with the common Mormon belief that the priesthood had been conferred prior to the church's founding in 1830.
On the other hand, some recent Mormon historians accept Smith's history as correct and consistent with other historical records showing that other Mormons present at the conference dated the restoration of the Melchizedek priesthood to 1831. This conference had been a very significant event in the early church history, coming soon after the conversion of Sidney Rigdon, who believed that Mormon missionaries lacked the necessary power to adequately preach the gospel. Thus, in January 1831, Smith issued a revelation where he wrote that after Mormons relocated to Kirtland, Ohio, they would "be endowed with power from on high" and "sent forth". In a revelation given to an individual, Smith assured the man that "at the conference meeting he [would] be ordained unto power from on high". One of Smith's associates that was present at the conference expressed the view that this ordination "consisted [of] the endowment--it being a new order--and bestowed authority", and later that year, an early convert who had left the church claimed that many of the Saints "have been ordained to the High Priesthood, or the order of Melchizedek; and profess to be endowed with the same power as the ancient apostles were". In 1835, the historical record was muddled a bit when the first edition of the Doctrine and Covenants altered pre-1831 revelations to make a distinction between the Aaronic and Melchizedek priesthoods, and to classify the offices of elder and apostle as part of the Melchizedek priesthood.
In the LDS Church
In the LDS Church, the largest Latter Day Saint denomination, the Melchizedek priesthood is one of two governing priesthoods, which is typically given as a matter of course to worthy male members 18 years and older. No exact rule exists about how much time a man must be a member first; he may receive this priesthood as soon as local church leaders feel he is prepared. Ordination is based on the recipient's age and worthiness and does not require any specific training or aptitude. A candidate for this ordination is interviewed and often counseled to study the 84th, 107th, and 121st sections of the Doctrine and Covenants to begin to understand the oath and covenant of the priesthood, the covenant a person makes with God when he receives the Melchizedek priesthood. The candidate is also usually asked to stand in a gathering of the members of the church to be publicly accepted as being worthy of ordination. For male Latter-day Saints, receiving the Melchizedek priesthood is considered to be a saving ordinance of the gospel.
Shortly after the establishment of the church, the ordination of blacks to the priesthood was prohibited. Following a revelation to then-Church president Spencer W. Kimball, the church lifted the prohibition in 1978.
An important purpose of giving the Melchizedek priesthood to every adult Latter-day Saint man is to allow fathers and husbands to be able to give priesthood blessings of healing, comfort, counsel, and strength to their children and wife, and to preside over the family unit in a righteous manner. Many LDS fathers give a priesthood blessing to their children before the start of each new school year or before an important life event such as marriage. Each Melchizedek priesthood bearer, regardless of priesthood office, is encouraged to give priesthood blessings when called upon by others.
In the LDS Church, there are five offices within the Melchizedek priesthood. Although the holders of the different priesthood offices hold the same Melchizedek priesthood, their assigned rights and responsibilities vary according to their priesthood office.
|Office||Minimum requirement to be ordained to office||Rights and responsibilities|
|Apostle||Married holder of the Melchizedek priesthood||"Special witnesses" of Jesus Christ who hold the rights to officiate in all responsibilities and duties of the priesthood, including the sealing power. Apostles direct the calling of patriarchs and may ordain persons to all other offices and callings in the church. The President of the Church must be an apostle.|
|Seventy||Holder of the Melchizedek priesthood||"Especial witnesses" of Jesus Christ; called to preach the gospel to the world; work under the direction of apostles; may be general authorities or area seventies.|
|Patriarch||Married high priest; normally at least 55 years old||Gives patriarchal blessings to Latter-day Saints|
|High Priest||Holder of the Melchizedek priesthood||Responsible for the spiritual welfare of the Latter-day Saints; may serve in a bishopric, stake presidency, high council, or temple presidency and may serve as a mission president; may ordain other High Priests and Elders|
|Elder||Priest in the Aaronic priesthood; at least 18 years old||Confer the gift of the Holy Ghost; give blessings by the laying on of hands; ordain other Elders; holds all the rights of the Aaronic priesthood|
Holders of priesthood offices are organized into quorums. The quorums are a brotherhood where members of the quorum assist each other, teach one another, and delegate particular responsibilities to individuals or committees. Members of the church who do not maintain the standards and people who are not members of the church are invited to participate in the quorum to enjoy the brotherhood and support, although they may not be given certain quorum responsibilities.
|Priesthood office||Name of quorum||Maximum number in quorum and notes|
|Apostle||Quorum of the Twelve Apostles||12; other apostles may be in Quorum of First Presidency or in no quorum|
|Seventy||Quorums of the Seventy
(currently numbered First through Eighth)
|70; some are quorums of general authorities; others are quorums of area authorities|
|Patriarch||No quorum organization||Note that a patriarch meets together with fellow members of his stake's high priests quorum in its annual meeting.|
|High Priest||High Priests Quorum (stake)||No maximum; no quorum exists in districts of the church|
|Elder||Elders Quorum||96; adult males without the priesthood, adult holders of the Aaronic priesthood, and holders of the Melchizedek priesthood not in the high priest quorum, and members of the high priest quorum for the moment not occupied with work from their respective callings, all attend the elders quorum's meetings|
Each quorum and organizational unit in the church has a presidency attached to it. A presidency is usually composed of three members: the president and two counselors. Typically, a president is selected and he chooses the two counselors whom he would like to serve with him. On very rare occasions there may be only one counselor or three counselors. Usually, a secretary is also called by the president to serve, but he is not considered a part of the presidency. Each of the counselors is given a precedence, for instance, "first counselor" and "second counselor".
The two exceptions to these general rules are the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, which is presided by a single president; and the Presidency of the Seventy, which consists of seven presidents equal in authority.
The counselors serve under the direction of the president and share in his responsibilities. The president may assign each counselor to handle certain areas of responsibility. The president bears the sole burden of being the final arbiter of decisions, but he is advised to receive advice from his counselors and pay close attention to their opinions and insights.
When the president is released, the counselors are also released.
Priesthood leadership callings
In addition to the regular offices of the Aaronic or Melchizedek priesthood, there are other leadership callings within the priesthood. The table below lists these other priesthood leadership callings, with the table below it showing the organization of various callings within the church's hierarchy.
|Leadership calling||Minimum qualifications||Rights and responsibilities|
|President of the Church and
counselor in the First Presidency
|President must be an apostle;
counselors must be high priests
|Preside over and direct the entire church|
|Area President and counselors||All must be seventies or apostles||Preside over and direct a geographical region ("area") of the church|
|Stake President and counselors||All must be high priests||Preside over and direct a stake of the church|
|Stake high councilors||All must be high priests||Assist the stake presidency in governing the stake|
|Ward Bishop and counselors||All must be high priests||Preside over and direct a ward of a stake|
|Mission president and counselors||Mission president must be high priest;
counselors must hold Melchizedek priesthood
|Preside over and direct a mission of the church and the full-time missionaries in the mission|
|District President and counselors||All must hold Melchizedek priesthood||Preside over and direct a district of a mission|
|Branch President and counselors||All must hold Melchizedek priesthood||Preside over and direct a branch of a district or stake|
|Temple president and counselors||All must be high priests||Preside over and direct the operation of a temple|
|The First Presidency:|
The President (Prophet) of the church, 1st Counselor and 2nd Counselor
|The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles:|
Twelve ordained apostles, one of whom may be the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles
|The Presiding Bishopric|
|Quorums of the Seventy|
The Seven Presidents of the Seventy and several dozen Seventies
Presidents, 1st and 2nd Counselors are typically filled by Seventies
|Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Quorums of the Seventy (Area Seventies)||Temple Presidencies|
|Stake Presidencies and High Councils or District Presidencies||Mission Presidencies|
|Ward Bishoprics or Branch Presidencies||Elders Quorums (prospective elders, elders, and high priests||Stake High Priests Quorum (bishoprics, stake high council and stake presidency)|
|Deacons Quorums||Teachers Quorums||Priests Quorums|
- Dictionary.com – Melchizedek Retrieved 2015-08-22.
- "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide"; Retrieved 2015-08-22.
- Joseph Smith, Joseph Fielding Smith (ed.), Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, p.323.
- Alma 4:20, 13:8
- D&C 107:3
- D&C 107:2-4
- D&C 84:6
- D&C 84:24; see also Exodus 19:5-6; Hebrews 12:20.
- Roberts (1902, p. 176).
- Covenant 128:20-21
- (Roberts 1902, pp. 175–76).
- (Roberts 1902, p. 176).
- Quinn, Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power.
- Prince (1995, p. 116).
- Phelps (1833, p. 84) (D&C 38:32)
- Kirtland Revelation Book, p. 91.
- Corrill, 18
- (Booth 1831) harv error: no target: CITEREFBooth1831 (help)
- Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research (FAIR) wiki
- See D&C 121:36-46
- Church Handbook of Instructions, Book 1: Bishoprics and Stake Presidencies, Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2006, p. 6.
- Doctrine & Covenants 107:17
- Phelps, W.W., ed. (1833), A Book of Commandments, for the Government of the Church of Christ, Zion: William Wines Phelps & Co., LCCN 08025600, OCLC 29133525.
- Prince, Gregory A (1995), Power From On High: The Development of Mormon Priesthood, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-071-X.
- Roberts, B. H., ed. (1902), History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1, Salt Lake City: Deseret News.