Minuscule 25

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Minuscule 25
New Testament manuscript
Text Gospels
Date 11th-century
Script Greek
Now at National Library of France
Size 30.2 cm by 23.2 cm
Type Byzantine text-type
Category V
Note incomplete marginalia

Minuscule 25 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), A139 (Soden).[1] It is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, written on vellum, on parchment leaves. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th-century.[2][3] It has marginalia (incomplete) and was adapted for liturgical use.


The codex contains a text of the four Gospels on 292 thick parchment leaves (30.2 cm by 23.2 cm), with considerable lacunae.[4] The text is written in one column per page, biblical text in 13 lines per page, text of commentary in 42 lines per page, in brown ink. The capital letters are in red ink.[5]

The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια (chapters), whose numbers are given at the margin, and the τιτλοι (titles of chapters) at the top of the pages. There is no another division according to the Ammonian Sections with references to the Eusebian Canons.[5]

It contains Prolegomena, lists of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each of the Gospels, lectionary markings at the margin for liturgical use (partially), and a commentary (Mark – Victorinus).[5][6] Grandly written, but very imperfect.[4]

Lacunae: Matthew Mt 1:1-4:25; 23:1-25:42; 26:43-55; 28:10-20; Luke 20:19-22:46; John 12:40-13:1; 15:24-16:12; 18:16-28; 20:19-21:19-25.[7]

It has errors by iota subscriptum.[5]


The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Kurt Aland placed it in Category V.[8] It was not examined by Claremont Profile Method.[9]


The manuscript is dated by the INTF to the 11th-century.[2][3]

It was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by Johann Jakob Wettstein, who gave it the number 25. It was examined and described by Griesbach, Scholz, and Paulin Martin.[10] C. R. Gregory saw the manuscript in 1885.[5]

It is currently housed at the Bibliothèque nationale de France (Gr. 191) at Paris.[2][3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gregory, Caspar René (1908). Die griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testament. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung. p. 49. 
  2. ^ a b c K. Aland; M. Welte; B. Köster; K. Junack (1994). Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 48. 
  3. ^ a b c "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  4. ^ a b F. H. A. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (London 1861), p. 145.
  5. ^ a b c d e Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 134. 
  6. ^ Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1894). A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament 1 (4 ed.). London: George Bell & Sons. p. 194. 
  7. ^ Kurt Aland, Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum. Locis parallelis evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis edidit, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1996, p. XXVII.
  8. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 
  9. ^ Wisse, Frederik (1982). The Profile Method for the Classification and Evaluation of Manuscript Evidence, as Applied to the Continuous Greek Text of the Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 53. ISBN 0-8028-1918-4. 
  10. ^ Jean-Pierre-Paul Martin, Description technique des manuscrits grecs, relatif au Nouveau Testament, conservé dans les bibliothèques des Paris (Paris 1883), p. 38-39