Moana (2016 film)
Theatrical release poster
|Produced by||Osnat Shurer|
|Screenplay by||Jared Bush|
|Edited by||Jeff Draheim|
|Distributed by||Walt Disney Studios
|Box office||$606.8 million|
Moana (//) is a 2016 American 3D computer-animated musical fantasy comedy adventure film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. It is the 56th Disney animated feature film. Directed by Ron Clements and John Musker, co-directed by Don Hall and Chris Williams, the film introduces Auli'i Cravalho as Moana and features the voices of Dwayne Johnson, Rachel House, Temuera Morrison, Jemaine Clement, Nicole Scherzinger, and Alan Tudyk. The film features music written by Lin-Manuel Miranda, Opetaia Foa'i, and Mark Mancina.
The film tells the story of Moana, the strong-willed daughter of the chief of a Polynesian tribe, who is chosen by the ocean itself to reunite a mystical relic with a goddess. When a blight strikes her island, Moana sets sail in search of Maui, a legendary demigod, in the hope of saving her people.
Moana was released theatrically in the United States on November 23, 2016, in Disney Digital 3-D, RealD 3D, D-Box, and premium large formats. The film received critical acclaim, with particular attention directed to its animation, music, and voice cast. To date, the film has grossed nearly $607 million worldwide. The film, along with Zootopia, marks the first time since 2002 that Walt Disney Animation Studios has released two feature films in the same year. It received two Academy Award nominations at the 89th Academy Awards: one for Best Animated Feature and another for Best Original Song ("How Far I'll Go").
A small pounamu stone that is the mystical heart of the island goddess Te Fiti is stolen by the demigod Maui, who was planning to give it to humanity as a gift. As Maui makes his escape, he is attacked by the lava demon Te Kā, causing the heart of Te Fiti and his power-granting magical fish hook to be lost in the ocean.
A millennium later, Moana, daughter and heir of the chief on the small Polynesian island of Motunui, is chosen by the ocean to receive the heart, but drops it when her father Tui comes to get her. He insists the island provides everything the villagers need. But years later, fish become scarce and the island's vegetation begins dying. Moana proposes going beyond the reef to find more fish. Tui rejects her request as sailing past the reef is forbidden.
Moana's grandmother Tala shows Moana a secret cave behind a waterfall where she finds boats inside and discovers her ancestors were voyagers, sailing and discovering new islands across the world. Tala explains that they stopped voyaging because Maui stole the heart of Te Fiti, causing monsters to appear in the ocean. Tala then says Te Kā's darkness has been spreading from island to island, slowly killing them. Tala gives Moana the heart of Te Fiti, which she has kept safe for her granddaughter.
Tala suddenly falls ill and with her dying breaths tells Moana to set sail. Moana and her pet rooster Heihei depart in a drua to find Maui. A manta ray, Tala's reincarnation, follows. After a typhoon wave flips her sailboat and knocks her unconscious, she awakens the next morning on an island inhabited by Maui, who traps her in a cave and takes her sailboat to search for his fishhook. After escaping and catching up to Maui, Moana tries to convince him to return the heart, but Maui refuses, fearing its power will attract dark creatures.
Sentient coconut pirates called Kakamora surround the boat and steal the heart, but Moana and Maui retrieve it. Maui agrees to help return the heart, but only after he reclaims his hook, which is hidden in Lalotai, the Realm of Monsters. At Lalotai, they retrieve it by tricking Tamatoa, a giant coconut crab. Maui teaches Moana how to properly sail and navigate. They arrive at Te Fiti, where Te Kā attacks. Maui is overpowered and Te Kā severely damages his hook and repels their boat far out to sea. Fearful that returning to fight Te Kā will destroy his hook, Maui abandons Moana.
Distraught, Moana begs the ocean to take the heart and choose another person to return it to Te Fiti. The spirit of Tala comes to her and encourages Moana to find her true calling within herself. Inspired, Moana retrieves the heart and returns to Te Fiti alone. Maui, having had a change of heart, returns to distract the lava demon, and his hook is destroyed in the battle. Realizing that Te Kā is a corrupted Te Fiti without her heart, Moana asks the ocean to clear a path for Te Kā to approach her. She sings a song to help Te Kā remember who she truly is, and allows Moana to restore her heart and sooth her rage. Te Fiti returns and gives a new canoe to Moana and a new magical hook to Maui before returning to her island form.
Moana bids farewell to Maui and returns to her recovering island with Heihei. Later, the villagers and Moana (who became their new chief) begin voyaging and set sail in search of new islands, as Maui and Tala accompany them in their giant hawk and manta ray forms, respectively.
- Auli'i Cravalho as Moana, the 16-year-old daughter of village chief Tui who is chosen by the ocean to restore the heart of Te Fiti.
- Louise Bush as a younger Moana
- Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson as Maui, a legendary shapeshifting demigod who sets off with Moana on her journey.
- Rachel House as Tala, Moana's grandmother. Like Moana, Tala shares a passion for the ocean.
- Temuera Morrison as Tui, Moana's overprotective father and chief of Motunui Island.
- Christopher Jackson as Tui's singing voice
- Jemaine Clement as Tamatoa, a giant treasure-hoarding coconut crab from Lalotai, the Realm of Monsters.
- Nicole Scherzinger as Sina, Moana's mother and Tui's wife.
- Alan Tudyk as Heihei, Moana's pet rooster.
- Tudyk also provided the voice of a character credited as Villager #3
- Oscar Kightley as Fisherman
- Troy Polamalu as Villager #1
- Puanani Cravalho (Auli'i's mother), as Villager #2
After directing The Princess and the Frog (2009), Clements and Musker started working on an adaptation of Terry Pratchett's Mort, but problems with acquiring the necessary film rights prevented them from continuing with that project. To avoid a recurrence of that issue, they pitched three original ideas. The genesis of one of those ideas (the one that was ultimately green-lighted) occurred in 2011, when Musker began reading up on Polynesian mythology, and learned of the heroic exploits of the demigod Maui. Intrigued with the rich culture of Polynesia, he felt it would be a suitable subject for an animated film. Shortly thereafter, Musker and Clements wrote a treatment and pitched it to John Lasseter, who recommended that both of them should go on research trips. Accordingly, in 2012, Clements and Musker went on research trips to Fiji, Samoa, and Tahiti to meet the people of the South Pacific Ocean and learn about their culture. At first, they had planned to make the film entirely about Maui, but their initial research trips inspired Clements to pitch a new idea focused on the young daughter of a chief. They were fascinated to learn during their research that the people of Polynesia abruptly stopped making long-distance voyages about three thousand years ago, then resumed voyaging again a thousand years later, and no one really knows why. They set the film at the end of that era, about two thousand years ago, on a fictional island in the central Pacific Ocean, which drew inspiration from elements of the real-life island nations of Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga.
Over the five years it took to develop and produce the film, Clements and Musker recruited experts from across the South Pacific to form an Oceanic Story Trust, who consulted on the film's cultural accuracy and sensitivity as the story evolved through nine versions. The Trust responded negatively, for example, to a depiction of Maui as bald, and to a proposed scene in which Moana threw a tantrum by throwing coconuts. In response, Maui was reworked with long hair and the coconut scene was scrapped.
At the announcement of the film at a D23 Expo in 2015, Moana's last name was given as "Waialiki," but that name was not retained in the final film.
Taika Waititi wrote the initial screenplay. The first draft focused on Moana as the sole daughter in a family with "five or six brothers," in which gender played into the story. However, the brothers and gender-based theme were deleted from the story, as the directors thought Moana's journey should be about finding herself. A subsequent draft presented Moana's father as the one who wanted to resume navigation, but it was rewritten to have him oppose navigation so he would not overshadow Moana. Instead, Pamela Ribon came up with the idea of a grandmother character for the film, who would serve as a mentor linking Moana to ancient traditions. Another version focused on Moana rescuing her father, who had been lost at sea. The film's story changed drastically during the development phase (which happens with most Disney films), and that idea ultimately survived only as a subtle element of the father's backstory. Aaron and Jordan Kandell joined the project during a critical period to help deepen the emotional story architecture of the film. They are credited with developing the core relationship between Moana and Maui, the prologue, the Cave of the Wayfinders, the Kakamora, and the collector crab Tamatoa (played by Jemaine Clement). Jared Bush received sole credit as the writer of the final version of the screenplay.
Like most Disney and Pixar animated films, several major story problems were identified in 2015 only after the film had already transitioned from development into production, but computer-generated films tend to have much shorter production schedules and much larger animation teams (in this case, about 90 animators) than traditionally-animated films. Since Clements and Musker were already working 12-hour days (and Saturdays) directing such a large team of animators, Don Hall and Chris Williams (who had just finished directing Big Hero 6) came on board as co-directors to help fix the film's story issues. The scene in which Maui and Moana encounter the Kakamora is an intentional homage to Mad Max: Fury Road.
After the filmmakers sat through auditions of hundreds of candidates from across the Pacific, 14-year-old high school freshman Auli'i Cravalho was cast as the lead character Moana. At that point in time, the design of Moana's face and personality was already complete, and Cravalho's obvious physical resemblance to her character was simply a coincidence. During animation production, Disney animators were able to integrate some of Cravalho's mannerisms into Moana's behavior as depicted onscreen.
Despite appearing in four consecutive Walt Disney Animation Studios films starting with Wreck-It Ralph, Alan Tudyk was not originally offered a role due to the filmmakers' preference for actors of South Pacific background. The majority of the film's cast members are of Polynesian descent: Cravalho and Scherzinger were born in Hawaii and are of Native Hawaiian heritage; Johnson, Kightley and Polamalalu are of Samoan heritage; and New Zealand-born House, Morrison and Clement are of Māori heritage. However, after script changes, Tudyk was later offered the bit part of Heihei and recorded his audio in less than half a day.
Moana is Clements and Musker's first fully computer-animated film. One of the reasons for using computer animation was that the environment, including the ocean, benefited much more from the use of CGI as opposed to traditional animation. The filmmakers have also suggested that three-dimensional computer animation is well-suited to the "beautiful sculpturing" of the faces of the people of the South Pacific. Eric Goldberg worked on the hand-drawn animation used to depict Maui's sentient tattoos. During early development, the filmmakers considered the possibility of making the film with hand-drawn traditional animation, but only a few early animation tests were made in that style. In the final cut, only Maui's tattoos are hand-drawn.
Moana was produced in makeshift quarters in a giant warehouse in North Hollywood (together with Zootopia), while Disney Animation's headquarters building in Burbank was being renovated. Musker observed that Moana was similar in that respect to The Little Mermaid, which was produced in a warehouse in Glendale. Production wrapped on October 20, 2016.
Music and soundtrack
The film's soundtrack was released by Walt Disney Records on November 18, 2016. The songs were written by Opetaia Foa'i, Mark Mancina, and Lin-Manuel Miranda, while the score was written by Mancina. The lyrics are in English, Samoan and the Tokelauan language. The soundtrack peaked at number two on the Billboard 200.
On October 20, 2014, Walt Disney Pictures announced that it would be releasing the film in late 2016, and hinted that it might be the November 23, 2016 release window previously announced by the studio in March 2014 for a then-untitled film. In November 2014, Disney confirmed that it would be releasing the film on November 23, 2016. The film is accompanied by the short film, Inner Workings. The film's world premiere was held at the El Capitan Theatre in Los Angeles on November 14, 2016.
The picture is titled Vaiana in many European countries due to a trademark conflict. In Italy, it was titled Oceania, with Moana's name changed to Vaiana, presumably to avoid confusion with an Italian porn star named Moana Pozzi.
On October 25, 2016, at a press conference in Papeete, it was announced that the film will be the first motion picture to be fully dubbed in the Tahitian language. This marks the third time Disney has released a special dubbing dedicated to the culture which inspired the film: the first case was The Lion King (1994), for which the directors travelled to South Africa to cast voice actors for a Zulu-dubbed version; and the second case was Mulan (1998), which was the first Disney film to have a Mandarin Chinese dubbing made in China, separate from and independent of the version released in Taiwan.
In India, popular music composer Bappi Lahiri (who is known to be India's "gold-man") voiced the character of Tamatoa in the Hindi-dubbed version of the film; mostly because in reality, he too, similar to Tamatoa, has an immense love and fondness for gold. In Russia, Tamatoa was voiced by a popular singer Ilya Lagutenko, who performed Tamatoa's song with his distinctive soft "meowing" intonations.
There are currently meet-and-greets with Moana at Disneyland, Walt Disney World, Disneyland Paris, and at Aulani, a Disney Resort and Spa. At Hong Kong Disneyland, there will be a stage show called Moana's Village Festival, which is scheduled to open in 2018.
Moana was released by Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment on Blu-ray (2D and 3D) and DVD in the United States on March 7, 2017, with a digital release on February 21. The releases include the short film, Inner Workings. The Blu-ray release also introduces a short film featuring Maui and Moana, titled Gone Fishing.
As of March 20, 2017[update], Moana has grossed $248.1 million in the U.S. and Canada and $358.7 million in other countries for a worldwide total of $606.8 million. On January 22 and March 16, 2017, respectively, the film reached the $500 million and $600 million marks, becoming the fourth consecutive Walt Disney Animation Studios film to reach both milestones after Frozen (2013), Big Hero 6 (2014), and Zootopia (2016). Although Disney has not disclosed the film's production budget, most of its animated films cost around $150 million.
In the United States, Moana was released during the Thanksgiving weekend. The film played in 3,875 theaters of which a majority of them (80%) screened it in 3D. It also played in 50 premium large format screens and more than 400 D-Box screens. It was projected to take in around $50 million in three days, with $75–85 million in five days (some estimates going as high as $90 million). Deadline.com said the numbers were good for the original Disney film and marked a great rebound for the company in the wake of Pixar's The Good Dinosaur the previous year, which had made $55 million over five days off a production budget of $175–200 million.
The film made $2.6 million from Tuesday paid previews which began at 7 p.m., the highest ever for a Walt Disney Animation Studios film and for a non-Pixar Disney animated film. On its opening day, it made $15.5 million, a new record for a Walt Disney Animation Studios film opening on Wednesday (breaking Frozen's record) and the biggest opening day ever for a film released on pre-Thanksgiving Day. On Thanksgiving Day, it earned $9.9 million, a decrease of 36% from its previous day. On Black Friday—the highest-grossing day of the Thanksgiving stretch—it made $21.8 million, a 127% increase from the day before. Through Sunday, the film posted a three-day opening weekend worth $56.6 million over its Friday-to-Sunday debut and $82.1 million from Wednesday to Sunday, the third biggest three-day Thanksgiving opening (behind Frozen and Toy Story 2) and the second biggest five-day Thanksgiving opening (behind Frozen), dethroning Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them off the top spot. Among all films that did not necessarily open in this weekend but may have played, Moana ranks sixth among three-day weekends and fifth among five-day weekends.
The film's opening was considered to be a success (and another animated success) for the studio after Zootopia and Pixar's Finding Dory posted huge openings, respectively, the same year in March and June.
In its second weekend, the film dropped by about 50% for a total of $28.3 million, a smaller drop than Toy Story 2, Frozen, Tangled, and The Good Dinosaur. The film managed to top the box office for its third weekend, despite competition from newcomers and holdovers, earning $18.5 million while falling by 34%. It became the sixth film of 2016 to top the box office three times, following Deadpool, Zootopia, The Jungle Book, Finding Dory, and Suicide Squad. The film was overtaken by Disney's own Rogue One: A Star Wars Story in its fourth weekend, despite only a marginal decline.
It fell to number six in its fifth weekend, due to competition from four new releases—Sing, Passengers, Why Him?, and Assassin's Creed—despite a small drop again; it grossed $2.9 million on Christmas Day. On the holiday week of December 23–29, the film finished at number four with a gross of $26 million, which was 14% up from the previous week, despite losing over 300 theaters. It finished at number four in its sixth weekend, going up 42% and 97%, respectively, during the three-day and four-day weekends; it grossed $3.6 million on New Year's Day.
Outside North America
Internationally, the film earned $17.2 million in its first weekend from 12 markets, the bulk of which came from China. In its second weekend, the film expanded to a total of 30 markets, adding an additional $33.7 million.
In China, the film had a mediocre opening day with just $1.9 million from 38,000 screenings. However, it enjoyed a big weekend bump on Saturday—even though its screens dipped—and Sunday. In total, it scored an opening weekend of $12.3 million, the second best for a Disney animated title, behind only Zootopia. It was No. 2 behind Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. Disney believes the film has a long way to go in China, although the market is filled with new films released every weekend. Nevertheless, strong social media numbers showed among the highest the studio has seen there. Similar to how Zootopia started off slow and later became a blockbuster phenomenon, the company is expecting the same for Moana. Deadline.com pointed out that this will be down to local marketing and partnerships in order for the film to continue finding audiences and building momentum. It had similar successful number-one debuts in France, Russia, Mexico and Spain. The film also saw success in Belgium, the Netherlands and French-speaking Switzerland. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the film faced competition from Fantastic Beasts—which was playing in its third weekend—and as a result, it posted a low opening of only £2.2 million ($2.78 million).
The biggest earning markets to date have been France ($35.4 million), followed by China ($32.8 million), the UK ($24.6 million), Brazil ($22.3 million), Australia ($18.9 million), Germany ($16.8 million), Italy ($15.5 million), South Korea ($15.5 million), and Japan ($6.2 million).
Moana received critical acclaim. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 95% based on 221 reviews and an average rating of 7.9/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "With a title character as three-dimensional as its lush animation and a story that adds fresh depth to Disney's time-tested formula, Moana is truly a family-friendly adventure for the ages." On Metacritic, the film holds a normalized score of 81 out of 100 based on 44 critics, indicating "universal acclaim." Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on a scale ranging from A to F.
Writing for Roger Ebert's website, Christy Lemire gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four, writing "Moana would have been enormously entertaining regardless of when it came out, but its arrival at this particular moment in history gives it an added sense of significance—as well as inspiration."[this quote needs a citation] Joe Morgenstern of The Wall Street Journal proclaimed that "Moana is beautiful in more ways than I can tell, thanks to the brilliance of more animators than I could count."
Steve Pulaski of Influx Magazine gave the film an A–, saying "Disney's Moana sits comfortably alongside Zootopia and Finding Dory as one of the finest animated pictures of the year, but usurps them as the most attractive, visually dazzling picture of the year. The film is an immaculately detailed, visual marvel, with background and foreground elements like water and forestry, that normal moviegoers take for granted, protrude out and force you to notice them like never before."
Animator Eric Goldberg received praise from critics and audiences for his hand-drawn animation of Maui's tattoos, which they claimed "stole the show" from the actual CGI-animated motion picture.
Wai Chee Dimock, writing in the Los Angeles Review of Books, compared the ocean in Moana to the one in "The Water Baby," a short story by Jack London, saying that both are animated: one, by the tension between digital and analog animation, and the other, by the tension between an encroaching future and a past in retreat still capable of pushing back."
The film has received some criticism, primarily from indigenous people from the Oceania region. The Fiji Times newspaper journalist Ana Madigibuli claimed that Disney may have used a Korova camakau's design without permission of the Korova community regarding intellectual property rights of their "elders".
Brigham Young University–Hawaii sociocultural anthropologist Tēvita 'Ō. Kaʻili stated that "despite its important girl-power message, the film had a major flaw. It lacked symmetry by its omission of a heroic goddess. Disney resorted to reducing the mighty god Maui to a one-dimensional, selfish, borderline abusive, buffoon to foreground the strength of the movie’s protagonist Moana." He went on to explain that, "the omission of a goddess-heroine is significant because Polynesia is a culture with a vast pantheon of powerful heroic goddesses. Hina, a companion goddess to the god Maui, was nowhere to be found in Disneyʼs imagineering of Moana."
Merchandise produced alongside the film has also been criticized. A Maui "skin suit" costume made to tie in with the film was pulled by Disney from its online store following complaints about it being culturally insensitive and for appearing to promote brownface.
- "Moana (2016)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- "Oscar Nominations: Complete List". Variety. Los Angeles: Variety Media. January 24, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
- Connelly, Brendon (April 6, 2013). "What Disney's Film Of Terry Pratchett's Mort Might Have Looked Like... And A Preview Of Things To Come". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- Miller, Bruce (August 24, 2013). "Sioux City native Ron Clements preps new film for Disney studio". Sioux City Journal. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- Ron Clements and John Musker (November 23, 2016). "The Irascible Ron Clements and John Musker Talk 'Moana'" (Interview). Interview with Dan Sarto. Animation World Network. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Giardina, Caroline (November 25, 2016). "'Moana' Directors Reveal How the Story Changed". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Deitchman, Beth (Spring 2016). "Finding Her Way: Directors John Musker and Ron Clements Have Charted A Course For Their New Film, Moana, Which Sails Into Theatres In November 2016". Disney twenty-three. Burbank: Walt Disney Company. 8 (1): 32–33. ISSN 2162-5492. OCLC 698366817.
- Robinson, Joanna (November 16, 2016). "How Pacific Islanders Helped Disney's Moana Find Its Way". Vanity Fair. New York: Condé Nast. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Julius, Jessica; Malone, Maggie (2016). The Art of Moana. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 10. ISBN 9781452158976.
- Ito, Robert (November 15, 2016). "How (and Why) Maui Got So Big in 'Moana'". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "Meet Disney's New (And First Polynesian) Princess!". US Weekly. August 20, 2015. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
- "Taika Waititi behind Disney script 'Moana'". The New Zealand Herald. October 21, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- Giroux, Jack (November 23, 2016). "Interview: 'Moana' Directors John Musker and Ron Clements on Making Their First CG Movie" (Interview). /Film. Retrieved November 27, 2016.
- Ron Clements and John Musker (November 27, 2016). Moana: Ron Clements & John Musker Official Movie Premiere Interview (Video). YouTube. ScreenSlam. Event occurs at 4:50.
- Topel, Fred (November 21, 2016). "Moana Directors Talk The Films Influences and Fun References". Den of Geek!. DoGTech, LLC. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- V, Billy. "Hawaii brothers write for Disney's 'Moana'". Hawaii News Now. Raycom Media. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Rice, Lynette (October 7, 2015). "Meet the Next Disney Princess – and Get a First Look at Her Movie, Moana!". People. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- "Meet the Voice of Disney's New Princess, Moana". comingsoon.net. October 7, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- Williams, Angela. "14 Things to Know About Disney's 'Moana' Before You See It". New York: ABC News. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Thompson, Adam (December 8, 2016). "Disney Needed a Brainless Rooster for 'Moana,' So It Called Alan Tudyk". The Wall Street Journal. New York: The Dow Jones Company. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
Disney won’t disclose the budget of Moana, but major animated films typically run upward of $150 million.
- Desowitz, Bill (September 30, 2013). "Immersed in Movies: John Musker Talks 'Little Mermaid' Going Blu and 'Moana'". Animation Scoop. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- Kanai, Maria (October 13, 2015). "5 Things You Should Know About Disney's Moana Starring Auli'i Cravalho and Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson". Honolulu Magazine. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- Dell, Brad (October 15, 2015). "'Moana': a look into Disney's upcoming Polynesian voyage". Ka Leo. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- Madison, Charles (March 1, 2015). "Concept art of Maui, Dwayne Johnson's character in Disney's Moana". filmdivider.com. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- Siegemund-Broka, Austin (June 16, 2015). "Veteran Animator Eric Goldberg Joins USC Film School Faculty". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- Busch, Jenna. "D23: Interview with Moana's Dwayne Johnson and the Filmmakers". Welcome to the Legion!. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
- Snetiker, Marc (November 24, 2016). "Moana directors Ron Clements, John Musker talk four decades Disney movies". Entertainment Weekly. New York: Time Inc. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
- Breznican, Anthony (August 14, 2015). "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson makes surprise appearance for Disney's 'Moana': 'This is my heritage'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- "Disney's "Moana" Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Available Today" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 18, 2016. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "Tokelau Pride: Te Vaka's song for Disney's Princess Moana" (Press release). Government of Tokelau Bulletin. August 24, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- Caulfield, Keith (January 9, 2017). "The Weeknd Returns to No. 1 on Billboard 200, 'Moana' Soundtrack Zooms to No. 2". Billboard. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
- "Walt Disney Animation Studios Announces 2016 Release, Moana". ComingSoon.net. CraveOnline. October 20, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- "Disney Animation Unveils 'Moana' From 'Little Mermaid' Filmmakers For November 2016". Deadline. Penske Media Corporation. October 20, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- Yamato, Jen (November 10, 2014). "Disney Dates 2016 Animated Pics 'Zootopia' & 'Moana'". deadline.com. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- Evry, Max (April 22, 2016). "Moana Footage & Inner Workings Coming to Annecy Fest". ComingSoon.net. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
- Flores, Terry (November 15, 2016). "'Moana' Premiere: Hollywood Transforms Into Ocean of Stars". Variety. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Ediciones El País (October 11, 2015). "La princesa Moana en España se llamará Vaiana (y otros problemas de branding)". Verne. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
- "In Italia il nuovo film Disney si intitolerà "Oceania" e non "Moana"" (in Italian). Il Post. December 3, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
- "Moana to be first Disney film translated into Tahitian language". Entertainment Weekly. October 25, 2016. Retrieved November 12, 2016.
- "Nala". Charguigou. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
- "Mandarin". Charguigou. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- "Moana | Bappi Lahiri as Tamatoa | In Cinemas December 2". YouTube. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "From Tamma Tamma to Tamatoa, Bappi da goes Hollywood". Bollywood Hungama. October 31, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- ""Моана" и другие: лучшие песни из анимационных фильмов Disney по версии THR". the Hollywood Reporter (in Russian). Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- "Disney Says "You're Welcome": 'Moana' Sing-Along Coming To Theaters Nationwide". /Film. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "Hawaiian Airlines unveils "Moana" plane". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. October 15, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2016.
- Wolfe, Jennifer (January 13, 2017). "'Moana' Sails Home on Digital HD February 21 and Blu-ray March 7". Animation World Network. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
- Nancy Tartaglione (January 22, 2017). "'Rogue One' Blasts Past $1B At Global Box Office; 'Moana' Sails To $500M+". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- Dave McNary (March 16, 2017). "Disney's 'Moana' Sails to $600 Million at Worldwide Box Office". Variety. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- Brent Lang (November 21, 2016). "Thanksgiving Box Office: Disney's 'Moana' to Feast on Brad Pitt's 'Allied,' 'Bad Santa 2'". Variety. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
Disney didn’t release a budget, but most of the studio’s animated films cost north of $150 million.
- Meriah Doty (November 21, 2016). "'Moana' to Ride Big Box Office Wave With $75 Million-Plus". The Wrap. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Pamela McClintock (November 21, 2016). "Holiday Box Office: Disney to Dominate, Can Awards Contenders Escape the Arthouse?". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- Brevet, Brad (November 22, 2016). "'Moana' Sets Sights on $80+ Million 5-Day Thanksgiving Debut". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 21, 2016). "Will 'Moana' Slay 'Fantastic Beasts' Over The Thanksgiving Stretch?". Deadline.com. Retrieved November 22, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 23, 2016). "'Moana' & 'Fantastic Beasts' Owning Thanksgiving Stretch – Midday B.O. Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 24, 2016). "Can 'Moana' Melt 'Frozen's $93.6M Thanksgiving 5-Day Record? – Early AM Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved November 24, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 26, 2016). "'Moana' Rings Up $22.5M On Black Friday As She Cruises Toward Disney's 2nd Best Thanksgiving Debut – Late Night B.O.". Deadline.com. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- "Biggest 3-day Thanksgiving Openings at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Biggest 5-day Thanksgiving Openings at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Biggest 3-day Thanksgiving Weekends at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "Biggest 5-day Thanksgiving Weekends at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 27, 2016). "'Moana' Slots 2nd Best Thanksgiving Debut; 'Allied's Fight; 'Rules' The Worst Turkey Since 'Victor Frankenstein'". Deadline.com. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (December 4, 2016). "'Moana' Keeps Fire Going In Chilly December Weekend; 'Manchester' & 'Jackie' Bask In Awards Season Rays". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Brevet, Brad (December 4, 2016). "'Moana' Repeats at #1, Topping Slow Post-Thanksgiving Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Brevet, Brad (December 11, 2016). "'Moana' Threepeats at #1, 'La La Land' Opens Big in Limited Release". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Brevet, Brad (December 18, 2016). "'Star Wars: Rogue One' Debuts With Over $290 Million Worldwide, 'Collateral Beauty' Struggles". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (December 27, 2016). "'Rogue One' & 'Sing' Christmas Juggernaut Leaves Room For Specialty Films – Final Weekend Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- "Moana (2016) - Weekly Box Office Results". Box Office Mojo. December 30, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
- "December 30-January 1, 2017". Box Office Mojo. January 2, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "December 30-January 2, 2017". Box Office Mojo. January 2, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
- "January 13-15, 2017". Box Office Mojo. January 15, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "January 13-16, 2017". Box Office Mojo. January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- Tartaglione, Nancy (December 6, 2016). "'Fantastic Beasts' Bests $600M WW; 'Moana' Mints $180M; 'Doctor Strange' Ices 'Deadpool', 'Iron Man 2' – Intl Box Office". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Patrick Frater (November 28, 2016). "China Box Office: 'Fantastic Beasts' Enjoys $40 Million Opening". Variety. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Tartaglione, Nancy (November 27, 2016). "'Fantastic Beasts' Climbs To $474M Global; 'Moana' Catches $16.3M Offshore Wave – Intl Box Office". Deadline.com. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Charles Gant (December 6, 2016). "Moana and Sully bobbing in the wake of Fantastic Beasts at UK box office". The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
- Tartaglione, Nancy (January 15, 2017). "'Rogue One' Rises To $980M Global; 'Passengers' Takes Over Offshore No. 1 – International Box Office". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Moana (2016)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 4, 2017.
- "Moana". Metacritic. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com.
- Morgenstern, Joe (November 23, 2016). "'Moana' Review: The Waves Part". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- Pulaski, Steve. "Moana". Influx Magazine.
- Brayson, Johnny. "'Moana' In 3D & 2D Both Offer Something Special For The Viewer".
- "Disney mixes classic animation, computers to create captivating 'Moana'". November 23, 2016.
- "Movie review: 'Moana'". November 23, 2016.
- "Animating the Ocean".
- "Disney uses our camakau — Fiji Times Online".
- Anthropologist, Tēvita O. Kaʻili Indigenous Oceanian Cultural (November 26, 2016). "Goddess Hina: The Missing Heroine from Disneyʼs Moana.". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Disney has pulled its controversial Moana costume after consumer complaints". Chip and Co. September 23, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
- "Disney accused of 'brownface' over Moana costume". BBC.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Moana (2016 film).|