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Monocermonoides melolanthae.jpg
Monocercomonoides melolanthae
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Excavata
Phylum: Metamonada
Class: Anaeromonadea
Order: Oxymonadida
Family: Polymastigidae
Genus: Monocercomonoides
Travis, 1932

Monocercomonoides is a genus of flagellate Excavata belonging to the order Oxymonadida. Monocercomonoides species have been discovered living in the guts of small mammals, snakes, and insects. The genome of Monocercomonoides has approximately 75 million base pairs (75 Mbp), with 16629 predicted protein-coding genes.

Many excavates lack "classical" mitochondria. Oxymonads lack true mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. Monocercomonoides has been characterized as the first example of a eukaryotic organism devoid of mitochondria.[14] Its genome contains no mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and no genes for cardiolipin, a lipid for energy-transducing membranes.

In 2016, Monocercomonoides sp. PA 203, a Monocercomonoides species which resides in the intestines of the chinchilla, was found to possess no mitochondria at all. Monocercomonoides sp. PA 203 obtains its energy by enzymatic action on nutrients absorbed from the environment. It has also acquired, by horizontal gene transfer, a cytosolic sulfur mobilisation system to provide essential iron–sulfur clusters required for protein synthesis. The normal mitochondrial iron–sulfur cluster pathway is considered to have been lost secondarily.[14][15]


  1. ^ a b Mali, M.; Kulkarni, S.; Mali, S. (2001). "Two species of flagellates of the genus Monocercomonoides Travis, 1932 from the gut of dung beetle larva (Oryctes rhinoceros) in India". Geobios (Jodhpur). 28 (4): 201–204. 
  2. ^ Mali, M.; Patil, D. (2003). "The morphology of Monocercomonoides aurangabadae n. sp. a flagellata from the gut of Blatta germanica". Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 23 (2): 117–119. 
  3. ^ Jensen, E.A.; Hammond, D.M. (1964). "A morphological study of trichomonads and related flagellates from the bovine digestive tract". Journal of Protozoology. 11 (3): 386–394. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1964.tb01768.x. 
  4. ^ Krishnamurthy, R.; Madre, V.E. (1979). "Studies on two flagellates of the genus Monocercomonoides Travis, 1932 (Mastigophora: Polymastigina) from amphibians and reptiles in India". Acta Protozoologica. 18 (2): 251–257. 
  5. ^ a b c Rao, T.B. (1969). "The morphology and incidence of the genus Monocercomonoides]] (Grassi, 1879) Travis, 1932, of insects found in Andhra Pradesh, India". Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section B. 70 (5): 208–214. doi:10.1007/BF03052226 (inactive 2018-02-12). Retrieved 11 February 2018. 
  6. ^ Sultana, T.; Krishnamurthy, R. (1978). "Monocercomonoides gryllusae n. sp. (Mastigophora: Oxymonadida) from Gryllus bimaculatus". Geobios (Jodhpur). 5 (3): 114–115. 
  7. ^ Radek, R. (1994). "Monocercomonoides termitis]] n. sp., an oxymonad from the lower termite Kalotermes sinaicus". Archiv für Protistenkunde. 144 (4): 373–382. doi:10.1016/S0003-9365(11)80240-X. 
  8. ^ Radek, R. (1997). "Monocercomonoides hausmanni nom. nov, a New Species Name for M. termitis Radek, 1994". Archiv für Protistenkunde. 147 (3–4): 411. doi:10.1016/S0003-9365(97)80068-1. 
  9. ^ Mali, M.; Mali, S. (2004). "The Monocercomonoides khultabadae n.sp., a new flagellate from the gut of Pycnoscelus surinamensis". Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 24 (1): 55–58. 
  10. ^ a b Krishnamurthy, R.; Sultana, T. (1976). "The morphology of two new flagellates of the genus Monocercomonoides Travis, 1932 from insects in India". Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section B. 84 (3): 109–115. doi:10.1007/BF03045588 (inactive 2018-02-12). Retrieved 11 February 2018. 
  11. ^ a b Krishnamurthy, R. (1967). "Two new species of the genus Monocercomonoides Travis, 1932 (protozoa: Mastigophora) from reptiles". Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Section B. 66 (5): 184–191. doi:10.1007/BF03052183 (inactive 2018-02-12). Retrieved 11 February 2018. 
  12. ^ Abraham, R. (961). "A description of Monocercomonoides sayeedi n. sp., from the rumen of an Indian goat". Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde. 20 (6): 558–562. doi:10.1007/BF00333238. 
  13. ^ Krishnamurthy, R.; Sultana, T. (1979). "A new flagellate of the genus Monocercomonoides Travis, 1932 from a termite". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B (Biological Sciences). 49 (2): 85–87. 
  14. ^ a b Karnkowska, Anna; Vacek, Vojtěch; Zubáčová, Zuzana; Treitli, Sebastian C.; Petrželková, Romana; Eme, Laura; Novák, Lukáš; Žárský, Vojtěch; Barlow, Lael D.; Herman, Emily K.; Soukal, Petr; Hroudová, Miluše; Doležal, Pavel; Stairs, Courtney W.; Roger, Andrew J.; Eliáš, Marek; Dacks, Joel B.; Vlček, Čestmír; Hampl, Vladimír (2016). "A Eukaryote without a Mitochondrial Organelle". Current Biology. 26 (10): 1274. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.03.053. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 27185558. 
  15. ^ Davis, Josh L. (13 May 2016). "Scientists Shocked to Discover Eukaryote With NO Mitochondria". IFL Science. Retrieved 13 May 2016.