Monogram (artwork)

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Monogram is a "combine" by American artist Robert Rauschenberg, made during 1955-1959.[1] It consists of a stuffed goat with its midsection passing through an automobile tire.[2] It has been described as Rauschenberg's most famous work.[3] Since its purchase by Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden, in 1965, it has remained there with occasional world tours.

Art critic Catherine Craft said on the work: “Not surprisingly, Monogram shocked contemporary viewers. Still, there is also a strangely poignant beauty to its acquiescent, eternally patient goat. Some observers have associated it with an animal awaiting sacrifice. Nevertheless, with its horns and long, shimmering coat it also recalls the [series of hanging “fetish” assemblages of animal fur, rope, wood and various small objects] Feticci Personali Rauschenberg made in Italy."[4]


  1. ^ Michael Kimmelman (May 14, 2008). "Robert Rauschenberg, American Artist, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  2. ^ "Robert Rauschenberg: A delight in the ordinary". The Australian. News Limited. May 15, 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  3. ^ von Uthmann, Jorg (November 8, 2006). "Rauschenberg's Mystery Goat Stars in Paris Show of 'Combines'". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  4. ^ The meanings in Robert Rauschenberg's Monogram, Phaidon