Montgomery Area School District

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Montgomery Area School District
Map of Lycoming County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Address
120 Penn Street
Montgomery, Pennsylvania, Lycoming County 17752-1144
United States
Information
Type Public
Motto Doing whatever it takes for all students to succeed
Closed Elimsport Elementary School (2011)
School board 9 elected members
Superintendent Daphne L. (Ross) Bowers contract July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2019,
Administrator

Steven W Rupert, Business Manager
Mr. Grant Evangelisti, former Business Manager

Linda Gutkowski, Director of Curriculum and Instruction
Director Jason Rupert, Athletic Director
Principal Michael L. Prowant, HS and MS
Principal Karen S. Snyder, ES
Staff 56 non teaching staff (2015), 53 non teaching staff (2013), 63 non teaching staff (2011)
Faculty

69 teachers (2015)[1] 69 teachers (2012)
68.5 teachers (2013)[2] 69 teachers (2012)

73 teachers (2010)[3]
Grades PreK-12
Age 4 years old (Preschool) to 21 years old for special education
Pupils

918 students (2015)[4]
898 students (2012-13),[5]
927 students (2009-10)
915 students (2008-09)[6]

950 students (2005)[7]
 • Kindergarten 65 (2015),[8] 69 (2012), 66 (2010)
 • Grade 1 80 (2015), 73 (2012), 66
 • Grade 2 64 (2015), 66 (2012), 60
 • Grade 3 73 (2015), 70 (2012), 65
 • Grade 4 73 (2015), 68 (2012), 53
 • Grade 5 67 (2015), 55 (2012), 62
 • Grade 6 72 (2015), 68 (2012), 65
 • Grade 7 56 (2015), 55 (2012), 63
 • Grade 8 70 (2015), 60 (2012), 67
 • Grade 9 59 (2015), 62 (2012), 80
 • Grade 10 58 (2015), 58 (2012), 65
 • Grade 11 61 (2015), 67 (2012), 72
 • Grade 12 60 (2015), 67 (2012), 67 (2010)
 • Grade 13 Preschool - 60 (2015), 53 students (2012)
 • Other Enrollment projected to remain stable through 2019[9]
Student to teacher ratio 12:1 in 2010
Language English
Budget

$15.9 million (2016-17)[10]
$12.3 million (2011-12)[11]
$12,460,167 (2008-09)
$12,484,356 (2007-08)[12]
$10,733,438 (2006-07)

$10,480,161 (2005-06)
Per pupil spending

$13,507 (2008)
$13,992.84 (2010)

$17,831.88 (2013)[13]
Website

The Montgomery Area School District is a small, rural, public school district in Lycoming County. The school is centered on the borough of Montgomery and also serves: Clinton Township, Brady Township, and Washington Township. The District encompasses approximately 87 square miles (230 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, it serves a resident population of 7,749. By 2010, the District's population declined to 7,429 people.[14] In 2009, the district residents’ per capita income was $14,133, while the median family income was $42,027.[15] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501[16] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[17] The educational attainment levels for the population (25 years old and over) were 81.9% high school graduates and 10.9% college graduates.[18]

According to the Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, 58.3% of the District’s pupils lived at 185% or below the Federal Poverty Level [1] as shown by their eligibility for the federal free or reduced price school meal programs in 2012.[19] In 2009, the District residents’ per capita income was $14,133, while the median family income was $42,027.[20] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 [21] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[22] In Lycoming County, the median household income was $45,430.[23] By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.[24] In 2014, the median household income in the USA was $53,700.[25]

According to Montgomery Area School District officials, in school year 2007-2008 the District provided basic educational services to 944 pupils. It employed: 82 teachers, 57 full-time and part-time support personnel and 5 administrators. In school year 2009-2010, the Montgomery Area School District had 902 pupils. It employed: 77 teachers, 55 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 7 administrators. Montgomery Area School District received more than $7 million in state funding in school year 2009-2010.

In 2015, Montgomery Area School District operates 3 public schools: Montgomery Area High School, Montgomery Middle School and Montgomery Elementary School. The BLaST Intermediate Unit IU17 provides the District with a wide variety of services like specialized education for disabled students and hearing, speech and visual disability services and professional development for staff and faculty. The District does not participate in a career and technical school in the region.

Governance[edit]

Montgomery Area School District is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serve without compensation for a term of four years), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[26] Three school board members are elected from each of the three areas in the district: 3 from the Borough of Montgomery, 3 from Clinton Township and 3 from the combined areas of Brady and Washington Townships. The federal government controls programs it funds like: Title I funding for low income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act (renamed Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) in December 2015) which mandates the district focus its resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills.[27] The school board is required by state law to post a financial report on the district in its website by March of each school year.[28]

The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. These contracts must be in writing and are subject to public discloure under the state’s Right to Know Act. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent regarding renewal of the employment contract.[29] Pursuant to Act 141 of 2012 which amended the Pennsylvania School Code, all school districts that have hired superintendents on/after the fall of 2012 are required to develop objective performance standards and post them on the district’s website.[30]

Academic achievement[edit]

Montgomery Area School District was ranked 70th out of 493 Pennsylvania school districts in 2016, by the Pittsburgh Business Times.[31] The ranking is based on the last 3 years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in: reading, writing, math and science and the three Keystone Exams (literature, Algebra 1, Biology I) in high school.[32] Three school districts were excluded because they do not operate high schools: (Saint Clair Area School District, Midland Borough School District, Duquesne City School District). The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th. Adapted PSSA examinations are given to children in the special education programs. Writing exams were given to children in 5th and 8th grades

Overachiever statewide ranking

In 2013, the Pittsburgh Business Times also reported an Overachievers Ranking for 498 Pennsylvania school districts. Montgomery Area School District ranked 18th. In 2012, the District was ranked 10th.[40] The editor describes the ranking as: "a ranking answers the question - which school districts do better than expectations based upon economics? This rank takes the Honor Roll rank and adds the percentage of students in the district eligible for free and reduced-price lunch into the formula. A district finishing high on this rank is smashing expectations, and any district above the median point is exceeding expectations."[41]

In 2009, the academic achievement, of the students in the Montgomery Area School District, was in the 88th percentile among all 500 Pennsylvania school districts Scale (0-99; 100 is state best) [42]

District AYP status history[edit]

In 2012, Montgomery Area School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status. In 2011, Montgomery Area School District declined to Warning AYP status. In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance.[43] Montgomery Area School District achieved AYP status each school year from 2004 to 2009, while in 2003 the Montgomery Area School District was in Warning AYP status due to lagging student achievement.[44]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2016, the District’s graduation rate declined to 93.3.[45]

  • 2015 - 96.97%.[46]
  • 2014 - 90.77%[47]
  • 2013 - 94.9%.[48]
  • 2012 - 92%.[49]
  • 2011 - declined to 89%.[50]
  • 2010 - 89%, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate.[51]

According to traditional graduation rate calculations:

  • 2010 - 85%[52]
  • 2009 - 87%
  • 2008 - 87%[53]
  • 2007 - 87% [54]
  • 2005 - 86%

High school[edit]

Montgomery Area High School is located at 120 Penn Street, Montgomery. In 2016, enrollment was reported as 366 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 38.2% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. None of the pupils were identified as gifted.[55] In 2015, enrollment was 364 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 35.9% of pupils eligible for a free lunch. Additionally, 9% of pupils received special education services, while 1% of pupils were identified as gifted.[56] The school employed 23 teachers.[57] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

In 2013, enrollment was reported as 254 pupils in 9th through 12th grades, with 28% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 10% of pupils received special education services, while none of the pupils were identified as gifted. The School employed 23 teachers in 2013.[58] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. In 2010, Montgomery Area High School had 279 students enrolled in grades 9 through 12 with 83 students qualifying for a federal free or reduce priced lunch due to family poverty. It employed 25 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 11:1.[59] All of the teachers were designated as highly qualified as defined by No Child Left Behind.[60]

2016 School Performance Profile

SPP 65.6 out of 100 points. Montgomery Area High School Keystone Exams mandated testing results were: 71.6% of students were on grade level in reading.literature and just 57% of students demonstrated on grade level in Algebra I at the end of the course. In Biology I, 69% of pupils demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the Biology course.[61] The requirement that pupils pass the Keystone Exams in reading, algebra I and bIology I in order to graduate was postponed until 2019 by the Pennsylvania General Assembly because less than 60% of 12 grade pupils statewide would have been eligible for graduation from high school due to failing one or more Keystone Exams.[62] Fifty-four percent of the 2,676 public schools in Pennsylvania achieved a passing score of 70 or better.[63]

2015 School Performance Profile

Montgomery Area High School achieved 84.2 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement.The PDE reported that 94% of the High School’s students were on grade level in reading/literature. In Algebra 1, 96% of students showed on grade level skills at the end of the course. In Biology I, 81% demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[64] Statewide, 53 percent of schools with an eleventh grade achieved an academic score of 70 or better. Five percent of the 2,033 schools with 11th grade were scored at 90 and above; 20 percent were scored between 80 and 89; 28 percent between 70 and 79; 25 percent between 60 and 69 and 22 percent below 60. The Keystone Exam results showed: 73 percent of students statewide scored at grade-level in English, 64 percent in Algebra I and 59 percent in biology.[65][66]

2014 School Performance Profile

Montgomery Area High School achieved 81.5 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 95% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 91.6% showed on grade level skills. In Biology, 78% demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[67][68] Statewide, the percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in Algebra I increased to 39.7% to 40.1%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in reading/literature declined to 52.5%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in biology improved from 39.7% to 41.4%.[69]

2013 School Performance Profile

Montgomery Senior High School achieved 77.5 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 90.6% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 84% showed on grade level skills. In Biology, 67% showed on grade level science understanding.[70]

AYP history[edit]

In both 2011 and 2012, Montgomery Area High School was in Warning Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status due to lagging student achievement in reading and mathematics.[71] From 2003 through 2010, Montgomery Area High School achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status each school year.[72]

PSSA Results

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered from 2003 through 2012, in all Pennsylvania public high schools. The exams were administered in the Spring of each school year. The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam included content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies. The mathematics exam included: algebra I, algebra II, geometry and trigonometry. The standards were first published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[73] In 2013, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania changed its high school assessments to the Keystone Exams in Algebra 1, Reading/literature and Biology1. The exams are given at the end of the course, rather than all in the spring of the student's 11th grade year.[74]

11th Grade Reading
  • 2012 - 73% on grade level, (6% below basic). State - 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[75]
  • 2011 - 74% (12% below basic). State - 69.1% [76]
  • 2010 - 73% (11% below basic). State - 66% [77]
  • 2009 - 73% (4% below basic), State - 65% [78]
  • 2008 - 63% (15% below basic), State - 65%[79]
  • 2007 - 76% (14% below basic), State - 65% [80]
  • 2005 - 78%, 40% advanced (13% below basic), State - 65% [81]
  • 2004 - 61%, 24% advanced (20% below basic), State - 61%
11th Grade Math
  • 2012 - 75% on grade level (5% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[82]
  • 2011 - 78%, (3% below basic). State - 60.3%.[83]
  • 2010 - 72%, (14% below basic). State - 59% [84]
  • 2009 - 78% (7% below basic). State - 56% [85]
  • 2008 - 78% (5% below basic). State - 56% [86]
  • 2007 - 63% (13% below basic). State - 53%
  • 2005 - 76% (10% below basic). State - 51%
  • 2004 - 72% (16% below basic). State - 49%
11th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 42% on grade level (5% below basic). State - 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[87]
  • 2011 - 60% (5% below basic). State - 40%
  • 2010 - 45%, (11% below basic). State - 39%[88]
  • 2009 - 49% (6% below basic). State - 40% [89]
  • 2008 - 44% (7% below basic). State - 39% [90]

Science in Motion Montgomery Area High School did not take advantage of a state program called Science in Motion which brought college professors and sophisticated science equipment to the school to raise science awareness and to provide inquiry-based experiences for the students. The Science in Motion program was funded by a state appropriation and cost the school nothing to participate.[91] Susquehanna University provided the science enrichment experiences to schools in the region.

Graduation requirements[edit]

The Montgomery Area School Board has determined that a student must earn 28 credits to graduate, including: English 4 credits, Mathematics 4 credits, Social Studies 3 credits, Science 4 credits, and Health 1 course, Physical Education 2 courses, Drivers Education 1 course and enough electives to achieve 28 credits.[92]

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[93] Effective with the graduating class of 2017, the Pennsylvania State Board of Education eliminated the state mandate that students complete a culminating project in order to graduate.[94] The students at Montgomery Area High School are required to complete a career planning project.

By Pennsylvania State School Board regulations, beginning with the class of 2018, public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English Literature by passing the respective Keystone Exams for each course.[95] The exam is given at the end of the course. Keystone Exams replace the PSSAs for 11th grade.[96]

Students have several opportunities to pass the exam. Schools are mandated to provide targeted assistance to help the student be successful. Those who do not pass after several attempts can perform a project in order to graduate.[97][98] For the class of 2019, a Composition exam will be added. For the class of 2020, passing a civics and government exam will be added to the graduation requirements.[99] In 2011, Pennsylvania high school students field tested the Algebra 1, Biology and English Lit exams. The statewide results were: Algebra 1 38% on grade level, Biology 35% on grade level and English Lit - 49% on grade level.[100] Individual student, school or district reports were not made public, although they were reported to district officials by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Students identified as having special needs and qualifying for an Individual Educational Program (IEP) may graduate by meeting the requirements of their IEP.

College remediation

According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 17% of Montgomery Area Senior High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges.[101][102] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[103] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.

Dual enrollment[edit]

Montgomery Senior High School offers the Pennsylvania dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses at local higher education institutions to earn college credits. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate. The state offers a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books.[104] Students may earn credits through Luzerne County Community College and Keystone College. They also have access to Bloomsburg University ACE program during the school year and the summer months.[105] Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.[106] The Pennsylvania College Credit Transfer System reported in 2009, that students saved nearly $35.4 million by having their transferred credits count towards a degree under the new system.[107] In 2010, the District received a $6,320 state grant to be used to assist students with tuition, fees and books. In 2010, Governor Edward Rendell eliminated the grants to students.

Penn College NOW

In 2014, Montgomery Area School District offered several dual enrollment courses in conjunction with Pennsylvania College of Technology. Penn College NOW classes are taught by approved local high school teachers, at the high school.[108] Penn College NOW is partially funded by the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-270) through the Pennsylvania Department of Education, by the support of Pennsylvania companies through the Educational Improvement Tax Credit program managed by the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development and by Pennsylvania College of Technology.

SAT scores[edit]

In 2015, 43 Montgomery Area School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 501. The Math average score was 527. The Writing average score was 485.[109] The College Board also reported that statewide 96,826 pupils took the exams with average scores declining in all three measurers to: 495 in reading, 511 in math and 484 in writing.[110]

In 2014, 41 Montgomery Area School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 491. The Math average score was 522. The Writing average score was 435.[111][112] Statewide in Pennsylvania, Verbal Average Score was 497. The Math average score was 504. The Writing average score was 480. The College Board also reported that nationwide scores were: 497 in reading, 513 in math and 487 in writing.[113] In 2014, 1,672,395 students took the SATs in the United States.

In 2013, 36 Montgomery Area School District's Verbal Average Score was 493. The Math average score was 458. The Writing average score was 434. The College Board reported that statewide scores were: 494 in reading, 504 in math and 482 in writing. The nationwide SAT results were the same as in 2012.[114]

In 2012, 35 Montgomery Area School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 467. The Math average score was 489. The Writing average score was 444. The statewide Verbal SAT exams results were: Verbal 491, Math 501, Writing 480. In the USA, 1.65 million students took the exams achieving scores: Verbal 496, Math 514, Writing 488. According to the College Board the maximum score on each section was 800, and 360 students nationwide scored a perfect 2,400.

In 2011, 42 Montgomery Area School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 481. The Math average score was 527. The Writing average score was 474.[115] Pennsylvania ranked 40th among states with SAT scores: Verbal - 493, Math - 501, Writing - 479.[116] In the United States, 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011. They averaged 497 (out of 800) verbal, 514 math and 489 in writing.[117]

AP Courses[edit]

In 2014, Montgomery Area High School offered 5 Advanced Placement (AP) courses at a higher cost than regular courses. The fee for each AP Exam is $91 (2014).[118] The school normally retains $9 of that fee as a rebate to help with administrative costs. In 2012, the fee was $89 per test per pupil. Students have the option of taking College Board approved courses and then taking the College Board's examination in the Spring. Students, who achieve a 3 or better on the exam, may be awarded college credits at US universities and colleges. Each higher education institution sets its own standards about what level of credits are awarded to a student based on their AP exam score. Most higher education give credits for scores of 4 or 5. Some schools also give credits for scores of 3. High schools give credits towards graduation to students who take the school's AP class. At Montgomery Area High School 80% of the students who took an AP course earned a 3 or better on the exam in 2015.[119] In 2014, 61% of the pupils who took an AP course at Montgomery Area HIgh School achieved a 3 or better on the end of course exam.

In 2016, Montgomery Area High School offered 4 AP courses. just 43% of students, who took an at MAHS course, achieved a 3 or better on the annual AP exams associated with the course.[120]

Montgomery Middle School[edit]

Montgomery Middle School is located at 120 Penn Street, Montgomery. In 2013, enrollment was 183 pupils, in grades 6th through 8th, with 37% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 8.7% of pupils received special education services, while 0.55% of pupils were identified as gifted.[121] According to a 2013 report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[122]

In 2010, the School had 197 students enrolled in grades 6th through 8th with 70 students receiving for a federal free or reduce priced lunch due to family poverty. It employed 16 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 12:1.[123] All of the teachers were rated Highly Qualified as defined by the No Child Left Behind law.[124] By 2013, enrollment at Montgomery Middle School had declined to 183 pupils.

2015 School Performance Profile

The PDE reported that 54% of 8th grade students at Montgomery Area students were on grade level in reading on the PSSAs given in April 2015. In math/Algebra 1, 32% of 8th grade students showed on grade level skills. In science, 76% of the school’s 8th graders demonstrated on grade level science understanding. No eighth grade writing scores were reported. In 7th grade, 61% were on grade level in reading, while 50% showed on grade level math skills.[125] Statewide 58% of eighth (8th) graders were on grade level in reading, while 29% demonstrated on grade level math skills. Pennsylvania 7th graders were 58% on grade level in reading and 33% demonstrated on grade level math skills.[126]

2014 School Performance Profile

Montgomery Area Middle School achieved 82.1 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 87% were on grade level. In Algebra 1/Math, 95% showed on grade level mathematics skills. In Science, 86% of 8th graders showed on grade level science understanding. In writing, 83% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[127]

2013 School Performance Profile

Montgomery Middle School achieved 81.1 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics, writing and science achievement. In reading, 85% of the students were on grade level. In Mathematics, 92% of the students showed on grade level skills. In Science, 68.9% of the 8th graders demonstrated n grade level understanding. In writing, 68.9% of the 8th grade students were on grade level.[128]

AYP history

In 2010 through 2012, Montgomery MIddle School achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[129] In 2011, the attendance rate was 95%. In 2010, the attendance rate was reported as 95%. From 2033 to 2010, Montgomery Area MIddle School achieved AYP status each school. year.

PSSA Results
8th Grade Reading
  • 2012 - 89% on grade level, 60% advanced. In Pennsylvania, 79% of 8th graders on grade level.[130]
  • 2011 - 96%, 77% advanced. State - 81.8% [131]
  • 2010 - 86%, 52% advanced (8% below basic) State - 81% [132]
  • 2009 - 74%, 50% advanced (14% below basic), State - 80%
  • 2008 - 83%, 57% advanced (10% below basic), State - 78%
  • 2007 - 76%, 42% advanced (6% below basic), State - 75%[133]
  • 2005 - 81%, 41% advanced (13% below basic), State - 64%
  • 2004 - 70%, 28% advanced (8% below basic), State - 69%
8th Grade Math
  • 2012 - 98% on grade level 81% advanced. State - 76% [134]
  • 2011 - 96%, 77% advanced. State - 76.9%
  • 2010 - 87%, 67% advanced (8% below basic) State - 75%
  • 2009 - 65%, 38% advanced (13% below basic), State - 71%
  • 2008 - 84%, 57% advanced (8% below basic), State - 70% [135]
  • 2007 - 83%, 48% advanced (11% below basic), State - 67%
  • 2005 - 79%, 57% advanced (10% below basic), State - 62%
  • 2004 - 72%, 37% advanced ( 5% below basic), State - 58%
8th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 81% on grade level, 23% advanced (0% below basic). State - 59%
  • 2011 - 83%, 32% advanced (8% below basic). State - 58.3%.
  • 2010 - 68%, State - 57%.
  • 2009 - 56%, State: - 54% [136]
  • 2008 - 58%, State - 52% [137]

Montgomery Elementary School[edit]

Montgomery Elementary School is located at 120 Penn Street, Montgomery. In 2015, the School's enrollment was 554 pupils in grades preschool through 6th, with 44% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 10% of the pupils receive special education services, while 0.5% are identified as gifted.[138] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides full day kindergarten and taxpayer funded preschool.[139] The school is a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2013, enrollment was pupils in grades preschool through 5th, with 38% of pupils receiving a free or reduced price lunch.[140] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[141] The school provided full day kindergarten to all its pupils.[142]

In 2011, the School become the sole elementary school in the District. Enrollment rose by 90 pupils. In 2010, the school had 339 students enrolled in grades kindergarten through 5th with 138 students qualifying for a federal free or reduce priced lunch due to family poverty. It employed 26 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 13:1.[143] All of the teachers were rated as Highly Qualified as defined by the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[144] The school provides a full day kindergarten program and a taxpayer funded preschool program for four-year-olds.

2015 School Performance Profile

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 75% of 5th grade students at Montgomery Area Elementary School were on grade level in reading on the PSSAs given in April 2015. In mathematics, 50% of 5th grade students showed on grade level skills. No fifth grade writing scores were reported. In 4th grade, 67% were on grade level in reading, while 56% showed on grade level math skills. In science, 94% of fourth graders showed on grade level understanding. Among third (3rd) graders, 68% were on grade level in reading and 51% were on grade level in mathematics. Among 6th graders, 76% were on grade level in reading and 73% were on grade level in mathematics.[145] Statewide 61.9% of fifth (5th) graders were on grade level in reading, while 42.8% demonstrated on grade level math skills. Pennsylvania 4th graders were 58.6% on grade level in reading and 44.4% demonstrated on grade level math skills. In science, 77.3% of fourth graders showed on grade level understanding. Among Pennsylvania third (3rd) graders, 62% were reading on grade level, while 48.5% demonstrated on grade level math skills.[146]

2014 School Performance Profile

Montgomery Area Elementary School achieved a score of 84 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013-14, only 84.21% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, 90.16% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 91.58% were on grade level (3rd-5th grades). In 4th grade science, 96.9% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, only 70.97% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[147]

2013 School Performance Profile

Montgomery Elementary School achieved 80.6 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012-13, 83.5% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 5th. In 3rd grade, 86.7% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 89.5% were on grade level. In 4th grade science, 93.5% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, 86.7% of 5th grade pupils were on grade level.[148]

AYP History

In 2010 through 2012, Montgomery Elementary School achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status each school year.[149] In 2011, the attendance rate was 95%, while in 2010, the attendance rate was reported as 96%.[150]

PSSA results

Each year, in the Spring, in order to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Law, the 3rd graders take the PSSAs in math and reading. The fourth grade is tested in reading, math and science. The fifth grade is evaluated in reading, mathematics and writing. Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered beginning 2003 to all Pennsylvania public school students in grades 3rd-8th.[151] The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014.[152][153][154] The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam is given to 4th grades and includes content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies.[155] The first cohort of children who attended Accountability Block Grant funded full-day kindergarten reached third grade and took the PSSAs in the spring of 2008.

4th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 95%, 60% advanced. State - 82%
  • 2011 - 94%, 58% advanced, State – 82.9%
  • 2010 - 92%, State - 81%
  • 2009 - 96%, State - 83%
  • 2008 - 95%, State - 81%

Special education[edit]

In December 2012, Montgomery Area School District administration reported that 90 pupils or 10% of the District's pupils received Special Education services, with 52.2% of those identified having a specific learning disability.[158] In December 2011, the District administration reported that 105 pupils or 11.6% of the District's pupils received Special Education services, with 45.7% of those identified having a specific learning disability. In December 2010, the District administration reported that 129 pupils or 13.9% of the District's pupils received Special Education services, with 52% of those identified having a specific learning disability. In December 2009, the District administration reported that 125 pupils or 13% of the district's pupils received Special Education services.[159]

Montgomery Area School District engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress. To identify students who may be eligible for special education, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Instructional Support Team or Student Assistance Team. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the District seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the Special Education Department.[160]

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for special education services. The funds were distributed to districts based on a state policy which estimates that 16% of the district's pupils are receiving special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[161] The state's funding policy also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[162] The state requires each district to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[163] The state requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[164] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive requiring schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[165]

Montgomery Area School District received a $565,613 supplement for special education services in 2010.[166] The state funding for the 2011-2012, 2012–2013, 2013–2014 and 2014-2015 school years was the same as the funding rate in 2010-2011.[167] The enacted state budget included $1,026,815,000, for the 2011-2012 Special Education appropriation.[168] For the 2014-2015 school year, Montgomery Area School District received an increase to $574,102 from the Commonwealth for special education funding.[169]

Additionally, the state provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The District must apply for this added funding.

Gifted education[edit]

Montgomery Area School District Administration reported that 5 or 0.66% of its students were gifted in 2009.[170] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The primary emphasis is on enrichment and acceleration of the regular education curriculum through a push in model with the gifted instructor in the classroom with the regular instructor. This approach permits such specialized instructional strategies as tiered assignments, curriculum compacting, flexible grouping, learning stations, independent projects and independent contracts. Students identified as gifted attending the High School have access to honors and advanced placement courses, and dual enrollment with local colleges. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[171]

Remediation/Acceleration[edit]

The District operates a mandatory acceleration/remediation program at the end of the school day. The program is called MAPP (Montgomery Area Plus Program). It focuses on providing small group assistance in those academic areas in which students have not met standards. It runs at all schools at the end of the school day.

Bullying policy[edit]

The Montgomery Area School District administration reported there was 1 incident of bullying in the district in 2012. There were 7 incidents which involved local law enforcement, including an assault on a student and 4 incidents of burglary.[172][173][174]

The Montgomery Area School Board has provided the district's antibully policy online.[175] All Pennsylvania schools are required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website and posted in every classroom. All Pennsylvania public schools must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years. Additionally, the district must conduct an annual review of that policy with students.[176] The Center for Schools and Communities works in partnership with the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency and the Pennsylvania Department of Education to assist schools and communities as they research, select and implement bullying prevention programs and initiatives.[177]

Education standards relating to student safety and antiharassment programs are described in the 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention in the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education.[178]

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[179]

In 2013, the average teacher salary in Montgomery Area School District was $60,731 a year.[180] The District employed 126 teachers with a top salary of $120,603.[181][182] Pennsylvania teacher salaries (2013–14) are searchable in a statewide database provided by TribLive News.[183] Montgomery Area School District teacher and administrator retirement benefits are equal to at least 2.00% x Final Average Salary x Total Credited Service. (Some teachers benefits utilize a 2.50% benefit factor.)[184] After 40 years of service, Pennsylvania public school teachers and administrators can retire with 100% of the average salary of their final 3 years of employment. According to a study conducted at the American Enterprise Institute, in 2011, public school teachers’ total compensation is roughly 50 percent higher than they would likely receive in the private sector. The study found that the most generous benefits that teachers receive are not accounted for in many studies of compensation including: pension, retiree health benefits and job security.[185] In 2014-15, Pennsylvania public school district mandated teacher pension contribution rose to 21.40% of employee salaries and in 2015-16 it rose again to 25.84% of total salaries.[186] In 2014-15, the state mandated District contribution to the teacher pension fund rose to 21.40% of employee salaries and in 2015-16 it rose again to 25.84% of total District salaries.[187]

In 2012, the average teacher salary in Montgomery Area School District was $56,703 a year, while the cost of the benefits teachers received was $17,375.91 per employee, for a total annual average teacher compensation of $74,079.29.[188] In 2011, the District employed 78 teachers with an average salary of $58,611 and a top salary of $115,920.[189]

In 2009, the District reports employing over 80 teachers with a starting salary of $40,000 for 180 days for pupil instruction.[190] The average teacher salary was $55,388 while the maximum salary is $107,965.[191] As of 2007, Pennsylvania ranked in the top 10 states in average teacher salaries. When adjusted for cost of living Pennsylvania ranked fourth in the nation for teacher compensation.[192] Additionally, Montgomery Area School District teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, professional development reimbursement, paid personal days, 10 sick days and other benefits. Teachers are paid extra if they are required to work outside of the regular school day [193] According to State Rep. Glen Grell, a trustee of the Pennsylvania Public School Employees’ Retirement System Board, a 40-year educator can retire with a pension equal to 100 percent of their final salary.[194]

In 2007, the Montgomery Area School District employed 70 teachers. The average teacher salary in the district was $51,484 for 180 school days worked.[195]

Administrative spending Montgomery Area School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 was $752 per pupil. The District was ranked 252nd out of 500 in Pennsylvania for administrative spending. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.[196]

Per pupil spending In 2008, Montgomery Area School District reported spending $13,507 per pupil. This ranked 136th in the commonwealth.[197] In 2010 the per pupil spending had increased to $14,209.20 [198] Among the states, Pennsylvania’s total per pupil revenue (including all sources) ranked 11th at $15,023 per student, in 2008-09.[199] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was $12,759.[200]

Reserves

In 2009, Montgomery Area School District reported $2,632,392 in an unreserved-undesignated fund balance. The designated fund balance was reported as $150,000.[201] In 2010, Montgomery Area Administration reported $2,539,369 in the unreserved-undesignated fund balance and $300,000 in its unreserved - designated Fund. Pennsylvania school district reserve funds are divided into two categories – designated and undesignated. The undesignated funds are not committed to any planned project. Designated funds and any other funds, such as capital reserves, are allocated to specific projects. School districts are required by state law to keep 5 percent of their annual spending in the undesignated reserve funds to preserve bond ratings. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, from 2003 to 2010, as a whole, Pennsylvania school districts amassed nearly $3 billion in reserved funds.[202]

Audit In December 2009, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the Montgomery Area School District. Findings were reported to the administration and school board.[203] In November 2014, the District was audited again by the Pennsylvania Auditor General. It found the district had taken appropriate actions based on earlier audit findings.[204]

Tuition Students who live in the Montgomery Area School District's attendance area may choose to attend one of Pennsylvania's 157 public charter schools. A student living in a neighboring public school district or a foreign exchange student may seek admission to Montgomery Area School District. For these cases, the Pennsylvania Department of Education sets an annual tuition rate for each school district. It is the amount the public school district pays to a charter school for each resident student that attends the charter and it is the amount a nonresident student's parents must pay to attend the Montgomery Area School District's schools. The 2012 tuition rates are Elementary School - $8,995.97, High School -. $10,223.35[205]

Montgomery Area School District is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax - 1.25%, a property tax, a local service tax $5, Mechanical Device Tax/Per Device $125, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government. Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. Interest earnings on accounts also provide nontax income to the District. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless of the level of the individual’s personal wealth.[206] The average Pennsylvania public school teacher pension in 2011 exceeded $60,000 a year, plus they receive federal Social Security benefits: both incomes are free of Pennsylvania state income tax and local income taxes which fund local public schools.[207]

State basic education funding[edit]

According to a report from Representative Todd Stephens office, Montgomery Area School District receives 58.3% of its annual revenue from the state.[208]

In December 2014, the Pennsylvania Education Funding Reform Commission conducted a hearing.[209][210] The commission developed a new basic education funding formula which sets a new way to distribute state basic education dollars. It abolished the practice of "hold harmless" funding, which gave districts at least the same as they got the previous school year regardless of declining enrollment. The plan became law in June 2016 (House Bill 1552).[211][212][213]

For the 2016-17 school year, Montgomery Area School District received $5,172,627 in Basic Education Funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. This is a 1.9% increase over 2015-16 funding to the District. The highest percentage of BEF increase in Lycoming County was 5.4% awarded to Loyalsock Township School District under the state’s Basic Education Funding formula. For the 2016-17 school year, Pennsylvania increased its public education spending to a record high of $5,895 billion. It was a $200 million increase, 3.51% increase over the 2015-16 appropriation.[214] The state also funded Ready to Learn grants at $250 million and Special Education funding received a $20 million increase.[215] The state paid $492 million to the school employee social security fund and another $2.064 billion to the teacher’s pension fund.[216] Statewide Conestoga Valley School District received a 13.3% increase in state BEF funding. Five PA public school districts received an increase of 10% or greater in Basic Education funding over their 2015-16 funding.

For the 2015-16 school year, Governor Tom Wolf released a partial Basic Education Funding of $2,372,485 to Montgomery Area School District, in January 2016.[217] This was part of $10.3 billion in school funding withheld from the public schools, by the Governor since the summer of 2015.[218] The dispersement did not follow the new Basic Education Fair Funding formula which had been established by the Pennsylvania General Assembly in June 2015.[219] Ten (10) Pennsylvania school districts received no increase in Basic Eductaion funding under Governor Wolf.[220][221]

In compliance with a legislative mandate that was passed with veto proof majorities in the PA House and Senate,[222] the final BEF funding was determined for 2015-16, in April 2016. Montgomery Area School District received $5,076,837 in Basic Education Funds for the 2015-16 school year. This was a 1.46% increase yielding a $72,939 increase over the previous school year funding. The District also received $136,406 in Ready to Learn funding from the state.[223]

For the 2014-15 school year, Montgomery Area School District received $5,003,832 in State Basic Education funding. The District also received $51,249 in Accountability Block Grant funding and $55,172 in new Ready To Learn Block grant. The State’s enacted Education Budget includes $5,526,129,000 for the 2014-2015 Basic Education Funding.[224] The Education budget also includes Accountability Block Grant funding at $100 million and $241 million in new Ready to Learn funding for public schools that focus on student achievement and academic success. The State is paying $500.8 million to Social Security on the school employees behalf and another $1.16 billion to the state teachers pension system (PSERS). In total, Pennsylvania’s Education budget for K-12 public schools is $10 billion. This was a $305 million increase over 2013-2014 state spending and the greatest amount ever allotted by the Commonwealth for its public schools.[225]

For the 2013-14 school year, Montgomery Area School District received a 1.2% increase or $5,002,584 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding (BEF). This is $57,088 more than its 2012-13 state BEF to the District. Additionally, Montgomery Area School District received $51,249 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in Lycoming County, Loyalsock Township School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 2.6%. The District has the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[226] The state funded the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[227]

For the 2012-13 school year, Montgomery Area School District received $4,996,745.[228] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012-2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011-12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant (ABG) program. Montgomery Area School District received $51,249 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement. The state also provided a $544.4 million payment for School Employees’ Social Security and $856 million for School Employees’ Retirement fund called PSERS.[229] This amount was a $21,823,000 increase (0.34%) over the 2011-2012 appropriations for Basic Education Funding, School Employees' Social Security, Pupil Transportation, Nonpublic and Charter School Pupil Transportation. Since taking office, Corbett’s first two budgets have restored more than $918 million in support of public schools, compensating for the $1 billion in federal stimulus dollars lost at the end of the 2010-11 school year.

In the 2011-12 budget, Montgomery Area School District received $4,945,496, in state Basic Education Funding.[230] Additionally, Montgomery Area School District received $51,249 in Accountability Block Grant funding.[231] The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget included $5,354,629,000 for the 2011-2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount is a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010-2011.[232] The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District, which got a 49% increase in state funding for 2011-12.[233] In 2010, the District reported that 334 students received free or reduced-price lunches, due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.[234]

For the 2010-11 school year, Montgomery Area School District received a 2% increase in state Basic Education Funding resulting in a $5,345,294 payment.[235] Loyalsock Township School District received an 8.13% increase, which was again the highest increase in BEF in Lycoming County. Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County received the highest increase in the state at 23.65% increase in funding for the 2010-11 school year. One hundred fifty school districts received the base 2% increase in 2010-11. The amount of increase each school district receives was determined by then Governor Edward G. Rendell and the Secretary of Education, Gerald Zahorchak through the allocation set in the state's budget proposal made in February each year.[236] This was the second year of Governor Rendell’s policy to fund some districts at a far greater rate than others.

In the 2009-10 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 2% increase in Basic Education funding for a total of $5,044,406. The district also received supplemental funding for English language learners, Title 1 federal funding for low-income students, for district size, a poverty supplement from the commonwealth and more.[237] Loyalsock Township School District received a 5.94% increase, the highest increase in Lycoming County for the 2009-10 school year. Among the 500 school districts in Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received the highest with a 22.31% increase in funding.[238]

For 2008-09 school year, the state Basic Education funding to the Montgomery Area School District was $4,945,495.81. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 277 district students received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007-2008 school year.[239]

All Pennsylvania school districts also receive additional funding from the state through several funding allocations, including: Reimbursement of Charter School Expenditures; Special Education Funding; Secondary Career & Technical Education Subsidy; PA Accountability Grants; and low achieving schools were eligible for Educational Assistance Program Funding. Plus all Pennsylvania school districts receive federal dollars for various programs including: Special Education funding and Title I funding for children from low income families. In 2010, Pennsylvania spent over $24 billion for public education - local, state and federal dollars combined.[240] By 2015, Pennsylvania was spending over $27 billion on public education (local, state and federal resources combined).[241]

Accountability Block Grants[edit]

Beginning in 2004-05, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher training, all-day kindergarten, lower class size K-3rd grade, literacy and math coaching programs that provide teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction, before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students. For 2010-11 the Montgomery Area School District applied for and received $139,104 in addition to all other state and federal funding. The district used the funding to provide full-day kindergarten for the 7th year.[242][243]

Ready to Learn grant[edit]

Beginning in the 2014-15 budget, the State funded a new Ready to Learn Grant for public schools. A total of $100 million is allocated through a formula to districts based on the number of students, level of poverty of community as calculated by its market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) and the number of English language learners. Ready to Learn Block Grant funds may be used by the Districts for: school safety; Ready by 3 early childhood intervention programs; individualized learning programs; and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs.[244] Montgomery Area School District received $106,421 in Ready to Learn Grant dollars in addition to State Basic Education funding, Special Education funding, PreK Counts funding, transportation reimbursement, reimbursement for Social Security payments for employees and other state grants which the district must apply to receive.

  • 2015-16, MASD received $112,973 in Ready to Learn grant funds.
  • 2016-17, MASD received $136,406 in Ready to Learn grant funds.[245]

Classrooms for the Future grant[edit]

The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Math) and paid for teacher training to optimize the computers use. The program was funded from 2006-2009. Montgomery Area School District did not apply for funding in 2006-07. In 2007-08 the district received $102,358. For the 2008-09, school year the district received $45,413 for a total of $147,771. Of the 501 public school districts in Pennsylvania, 447 of them received Classrooms for the Future grant awards.[246] The highest funding statewide was awarded to Philadelphia City School District in Philadelphia County - $9,409,073. The grant program was discontinued by Governor Edward Rendell as part of the 2009-10 state budget.

PreK Counts grant[edit]

Montgomery Area School District receives state funding to provide preschool at the elementary school at no cost to the parents. For the 2011-2012 school year, Pre-K Counts was funded at the 2010-2011 levels of $83.6 million statewide in Governor Tom Corbett's proposed budget. The State also supplements the federal Head Start preschool program funding with an additional $37.6 million in state tax dollars. Pre-K Counts funding was initiated during the Rendell administration. In 2007-2008 the state funded Pre-K Counts at $75 million. Montgomery Area School District received funding in 2007-2008.[247] In 2009-2010, Montgomery Area School District received $300,000 to provide preschool to 50 children.[248][249] For the 2013-2014 school year, Montgomery Area School District received a PreK Counts grant of $393,000.[250] In 2013, the state’s PreK Counts program received $87,284,000.

Other grants[edit]

Montgomery Area School District did not participate in: Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's Environmental Education annual grants;[251][252] PA Science Its Elementary grants (discontinued effective with 2009-2010 budget by Governor Rendell);[253] Education Assistance Grants, 2012 Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy grant;[254] 2012 and 2013 Pennsylvania Hybrid Learning Grants;[255] Project 720 High School Reform grants[256] (discontinued effective with 2011-12 budget); nor the federal 21st Century Learning grants.

Halliburton Donation[edit]

In 2010, Halliburton donated $30,000 to upgrade the District's media center. The money was used to provide distance learning programs. The resources permit students to participate in a web based accelerated reader program, research lab, individualized math and reading remediation programs, virtual field trips, interaction with classrooms across the globe, distance learning, digital book clubs and author discussions.[257]

Federal grants[edit]

Montgomery Area School District received an extra $1,331,660 in ARRA - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students.[258] The funding was limited to the 2009-10 and 2010-2011 school years.[259] Due to the temporary nature of the funding, schools were repeatedly advised to use the funds for one-time expenditures like acquiring equipment, making repairs to buildings, training teachers to provide more effective instruction or purchasing books and software.

Race to the Top grant[edit]

Montgomery Area School District officials applied for the Race to the Top federal grant which would have brought the district up to one million additional federal dollars for improving student academic achievement.[260] Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success.[261] In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate.[262] Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of the majority of school districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[263]

Title II grants[edit]

The Federal government provides annual grants to schools to be used to improve the quality of teacher instructions to pupils. The goal is provide each child in public schools with “Highly Quality” teachers and principals as defined by the state.[264] The funds are sent to the state Department of Education which distributes them to each school district and charter school.[265] Beginning in 2002, the federal funding committed to Title II was $3,175,000,000.

Public school district administrations must apply to the state annually for the Title II funds. In 2012-13, Montgomery Area School District received $62,664 in federal Title II funding.[266] In 2014-15, Montgomery Area School District applied for and received $58,592.[267]

Common Cents state initiative[edit]

The Montgomery Area School Board chose to participate in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program. The program called for the state to audit the district, at no cost to local taxpayers, to identify ways the district could save tax dollars.[268] After the review of the information, the district was not required to implement the recommended cost savings changes. The review identified potential annual savings of over $78,000 over a variety of cost centers, including food services, transportation, purchasing and utility costs. Opportunities for savings in food services and utility costs appeared particularly promising for the district.

Real estate taxes[edit]

Despite receiving increases in state funding each year, Montgomery Area School Board has raised property taxes each school year 2012 to 2016. Montgomery Area School Board set property tax rates in 2016-17 at 14.3800 mills.[269] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region. Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate - land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and all government property (local, state and federal). Additionally, service related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Unlike other states, under Pennsylvania state tax policy, natural gas and oil pipelines are exempted from property taxes.[270]

Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections (Local Tax Enabling Act), which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[271] In 2010, miscalculations by the State Tax Equalization Board (STEB) were widespread in the Commonwealth and adversely impacted funding for many school districts, including those that did not cross county borders.[272][273]

The average yearly property tax paid by Lycoming County residents amounts to about 3.53% of their yearly income. Lycoming County ranked 364th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income.[285] According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999-00 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008-09 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2011.[286] Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[287] Pennsylvania's 2011 tax burden of 10.35% ranked 10th highest out of 50 states. The tax burden was above the national average of 9.8%. Pennsylvania's taxpayers paid $4,374 per capita in state and local taxes, including school taxes.[288]

Act 1 Adjusted index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not authorized to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2011-2012 school year is 1.4 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[289]

The School District Adjusted Index for the Montgomery Area School District 2006-2007 through 2010-2011.[290]

For the 2016-17 budget year, Montgomery Area School Board applied for an exception to exceed the District's Act 1 Index limit, due to rapidly escalating teacher pension costs.[300] Statewide 299 school districts adopted a resolution to not exceed their Act I index in 2016-17. In 2016-17, all Pennsylvania public school districts were required to make a 30.03% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS).[301] This was in addition to the 6.02% social security employer match payment.[302]

For the 2015-16 budget year, Montgomery Area School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit: for special education cost and for its rapidly rising teacher pension costs. For the school budget 2015-16, 310 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 187 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Regarding the pension costs exception, 172 school districts received approval to exceed the Index limit in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 119 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. No Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[303]

For the 2014-15 budget year, Montgomery Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2014-15, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 21.4% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS).[304] For the school budget 2014-15, 316 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 181 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Districts may apply for multiple exceptions each year. For the pension costs exception, 163 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 104 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Seven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[305]

For the 2013-14 budget year, Montgomery Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. For the school budget year 2013-14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 89 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[306]

In 2012-13, Montgomery Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. For 2012-2013, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit.[307]

Montgomery Area School Board applied for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index limit in 2011-12 due to pension costs and to maintain selected revenue sources.[308] Under Act 1 of 2006, school districts had the option of adopting either 1) a resolution by January 27 certifying they would not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget by February 16. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. For 2011-2012, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. In the Spring of 2011, 228 Pennsylvania public school district requested at least one exception to exceed their Act 1 Index limit.[309]

Montgomery Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 index for the budgets in 2009-10 or in 2010-11.[310] In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index. Approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases.[311]

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2013, Montgomery Area School District approved 1,565 homestead properties to receive $204.[312] The decline in amount was related to more residents applying for tax relief and a decline in table games tax revenues. The amount received by the District must be divided equally among all approved residences.[313]

In 2009, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Montgomery Area School District was $207 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 1,541 property owners applied for the tax relief.[314] The tax relief was subtracted from the total annual school property on the individual's tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. The Pennsylvania Auditor General found that 69% of property owners applied for tax relief in Lycoming County.[315] In Lycoming County, the highest property tax relief in 2009 was $310 awarded to the approved property owners in Williamsport Area School District. Pennsylvania awarded the highest property tax relief to residents of the Chester-Upland School District in Delaware County at $632 per homestead and farmstead in 2010.[316] This was the second year Chester Upland School District was the top recipient.

Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for Montgomery Area School District residents who are: low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, consequently individuals who have income substantially more than $35,000, may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.[317]

Enrollment and consolidation[edit]

Montgomery Area School District is experiencing low enrollment in K-12. The Pennsylvania Department of Education projects the district's enrollment will remain below 1000 pupils through 2018.[318] Shifting population trends across the U.S. and Pennsylvania are affecting school enrollment and may impact the building needs of school districts in the years to come.[319] Over the next 10 years, rural Pennsylvania school enrollment is projected to decrease 8 percent. The most significant enrollment decline is projected to be in western Pennsylvania, where rural school districts may have a 16 percent decline. More than 40 percent of elementary schools and more than 60 percent of secondary schools in western Pennsylvania are projected to experience significant enrollment decreases (15 percent or greater).[320]

A study done by Standard and Poors in 2007 (at the request of the PA General Assembly) examined the district consolidating with neighboring Muncy School District. It found that residents in both districts would realize substantial savings in a consolidation. Savings of over $1000 per pupil were estimated.[321] Superintendent were asked about savings, if their district were to merge with another district at the administrative level only, but not close any of their schools. It found 42% of survey respondents thought consolidation could achieve cost reductions. Additionally, 63% of responding superintendents believed that consolidation with another district would help provide additional academic enrichment opportunities for the students.[322] In March 2011, the Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants Fiscal Responsibility Task Force released a report which found that consolidating school district administrations with one neighboring district would save the Commonwealth $1.2 billion without forcing the consolidation of any schools.[323] The study noted that while the best school districts spent 4% of the annual budget on administration, others spend over 15% on administration.[324]

Pennsylvania has one of the highest numbers of school districts in the nation. In Pennsylvania, 80% of the school districts serve student populations under 5,000, and 40% serve less than 2,000. Less than 95 of Pennsylvania's 501 school districts have enrollment below 1250 students, in 2007.[325]

Elimsport Elementary School[edit]

At the end of the school year in 2011, the school was closed due to low enrollment and district budget constraints.[326] Elimsport Elementary School is located at 69 Petersburg Road, Allenwood. In 2010 the school had 92 students enrolled in grades kindergarten through 5th with 16 students qualifying for a federal free or reduce priced lunch due to family poverty. It employs 8 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 11:1.[327] All of the teachers were Highly qualified as defined by No Child Left Behind.[328]

In 2010, the attendance rate was reported as 97%.[329] In April 2011, the school board closed the school and moved all the students the main campus.[330]

4th Grade Science;
  • 2010 - 100%, 78% advanced, State - 81%
  • 2009 - 100%, 58% advanced, State - 83%
  • 2008 - 100%, 78% advanced, State - 81%

Wellness policy[edit]

Montgomery Area School Board established a district wellness policy in 2006.[333] The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K-12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108 – 265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006." Most Pennsylvania public school districts identified the superintendent and school foodservice director as responsible for ensuring local wellness policy implementation.[334]

The federal legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education, physical activity, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus.[335] The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval.

Montgomery Area School District offers both a free school breakfast and a free or reduced-price lunch to children in low income families. All students attending the school can eat breakfast and lunch. Children from families with incomes at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level are provided a breakfast and lunch at no cost to the family. Children from families with incomes between 130 and 185 percent of the federal poverty level can be charged no more than 30 cents per breakfast. A foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of the State or who is placed by a court with a caretaker household is eligible for both a free breakfast and a free lunch. Runaway, homeless and Migrant Youth are also automatically eligible for free meals.[336] The meals are partially funded with federal dollars through the United States Department of Agriculture.[337]

In 2013, the USDA issued new restrictions to foods in public schools. The rules apply to foods and beverages sold on all public school district campuses during the day. They limit vending machine snacks to a maximum of 200 calories per item. Additionally, all snack foods sold at school must meet competitive nutrient standards, meaning they must have fruits, vegetables, dairy or protein in them or contain at least 10 percent of the daily value of fiber, calcium, potassium, and Vitamin D.[338] In order to comply with the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 all US public school districts are required to raise the price of their school lunches to $2.60 regardless of the actual cost of providing the lunch.[339] In 2014, President Obama ordered a prohibition of advertisements for unhealthy foods on public school campuses during the school day.[340] The Food and Drug Administration requires that students take milk as their beverage at lunch. In accordance with this law, any student requesting water in place of milk with their lunch must present a written request, signed by a doctor, documenting the need for water instead of milk.[341]

Montgomery Area School District provides health services as mandated by the Commonwealth and the federal government. Nurses are available in each building to conduct annual health screenings (data reported to the PDE and state Department of Health) and to dispense prescribed medications to students during the school day.[342] Students can be excluded from school, unless they comply with all the State Department of Health’s extensive immunization mandates. School nurses monitor each pupil for this compliance.[343][344] Nurses also monitor each child's weight.[345]

In 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Health made available to each Pennsylvania high school the overdose antidote drug naloxone in a nasal spray. School nurses were also provided with educational materials and training developed by the National Association of School Nurses.[346] The cost was covered by a grant from a private foundation.[347]

Extracurriculars[edit]

The Montgomery Area School District offers a wide variety of clubs, activities and an extensive sports program. Several sports are offered in cooperation with the Muncy School District. Eligibility to participate is set by school board policies.[348][349] The District is noncompliant with state law in 2015, due to failing to post its Interscholastic Athletic Opportunities Disclosure Form on its website. Article XVI-C of the Public School Code requires the disclosure of interscholastic athletic opportunities for all public secondary school entities in Pennsylvania. All school entities with grades 7-12 are required to annually collect data concerning team and financial information for all male and female athletes beginning with the 2012-13 school year and submit the information to the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Beginning with the 2013-14 school year, all non-school (booster club and alumni) contributions and purchases must also be reported to PDE.[350]

In 2016, the Montgomery Area School Board approved spending over $700,000 to renovate the Montgomery Area Athletic Community Center.[351]

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students in the Montgomery Area School District, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those home schooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs, including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the District's schools.[352][353][354]

According to Pennsylvania Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Act 126 of 2014, all volunteer coaches and all those who assist in student activities, must have criminal background checks. Like all school district employees, they must also attend an anti child abuse training once every three years.[355][356][357]

Sports[edit]

Coaches receive compensation as outlined in the teachers' union contract. When athletic competition exceeds the regular season, additional compensation is paid.[358] According to Pennsylvania’s Safety in Youth Sports Act, all sports coaches, paid and volunteer, are required to annually complete the Concussion Management Certification Training and present the certification before coaching.[359][360]

The District funds:

Junior high school sports

According to PIAA directory July 2015 [361]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data Montgomery Area School District, 2016
  2. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data Montgomery Area School District, 2014
  3. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data Montgomery Area School District, 2011
  4. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Enrollment PA Public School 2014-15, 2016
  5. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Enrollment PA Public School 2012-13, October 4, 2013
  6. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education |title=Montgomery Area School District Enrollment and Projections, January 2009
  7. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Area School District Enrollment and Projections, July 2010
  8. ^ PDE, Enrollment by LEA 2015-16, 2016
  9. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Enrollment and Projections by LEA, July 2010
  10. ^ Sun Gazette, Montgomery OKs budget with tax hike, June 22, 2016
  11. ^ Patrick Donlin, Montgomery raises millage rate by 0.92, Williamsport Sun-Gazette, June 22, 2012
  12. ^ Public Financial Management, Inc. (August 9, 2010). "Montgomery Area School District General Obligation Bonds, Series A of 2010" (PDF). 
  13. ^ PDE, Finance Selected data 2013-14, 2015
  14. ^ US Census Bureau, 2010 Census Poverty Data by Local Educational Agency, 2011
  15. ^ US Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, 2009
  16. ^ US Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, State and County quick facts, 2010
  17. ^ US Census Bureau (September 2011). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010" (PDF). 
  18. ^ proximityone (2014). "School District Comparative Analysis Profiles". 
  19. ^ Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, Education Facts Student Poverty Concentration by LEA, 2012
  20. ^ US Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, 2009
  21. ^ US Census Bureau (2010). "American Fact Finder, State and County quick facts". 
  22. ^ US Census Bureau (September 2011). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010" (PDF). 
  23. ^ US Census Bureau (2014). "Pennsylvania Median household income, 2006-2010 by County". 
  24. ^ Michael Sauter & Alexander E.M. Hess, (August 31, 2013). "America's most popular six-figure jobs". USA Today. 
  25. ^ Jeff Guo (September 15, 2015). "Lower wages for whites, higher wages for immigrants, and inequality for all". Washington Post. 
  26. ^ Pennsylvania Public School Code Governance 2010
  27. ^ US Department of Education (2015). "Every Student Succeeds Act". 
  28. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (2012). "Act of Jul. 12, 2012, P.L. 1142, No. 141 Section 921-A". 
  29. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Pennsylvania School Code, 2013
  30. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly (2012). "Act of Jul. 12, 2012, P.L. 1142, No. 141". 
  31. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 12, 2016). "Chester County district leads statewide Honor Roll 2016". 
  32. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, What makes up a district’s School Performance Profile score?, April 11, 2014
  33. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide School District Ranking 2015, April 10, 2015
  34. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide School District Ranking 2014". 
  35. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Guide to Western Pennsylvania Schools Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2013, April 6, 2013
  36. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll Information. April 2012
  37. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll Rankings 2011, April 4, 2011
  38. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll 2010, May 1, 2010
  39. ^ "Three of top school districts in state hail from Allegheny County". Pittsburgh Business Times. May 23, 2007. 
  40. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Overachivers Ranking Information, April 4, 2013
  41. ^ "Overachiever statewide ranking". Pittsburgh Business Times. May 6, 2010. 
  42. ^ "2009 PSSA RESULTS Montgomery Area School District,". The Morning Call. March 2011. 
  43. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania Public School Districts AYP History, 2011
  44. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania District AYP History 2003-2010, 2011
  45. ^ PDE, Graduation rate by LEA, 2016
  46. ^ PDE, Graduation rate by LEA, 2015
  47. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Area Senior High School - School Performance Report 2014, November 4, 2014
  48. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Area Senior High School - School Performance Report 2013, October 4, 2013
  49. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Senior High School AYP Data Table 2012, September 21, 2012
  50. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "MONTGOMERY Senior High School AYP Data Table 2011". 
  51. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 15, 2011). "New 4-year Cohort Graduation Rate Calculation Now Being Implemented". 
  52. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Area School District Academic Achievement Report Card 2010 data table, March 3, 2011
  53. ^ The Times-Tribune (June 25, 2009). "Lycoming County Graduation Rates 2008". 
  54. ^ Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children (January 31, 2011). "High School Graduation rate 2007" (PDF). 
  55. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2016). "Montgomery Area High School Fast Facts 2016". 
  56. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 4, 2015). "Montgomery Area High School Fast Facts 2015". 
  57. ^ US News and World Report, Best High Schools, 2015
  58. ^ US News and World Report, Best High Schools, 2013
  59. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data - Montgomery Senior High School, 2010
  60. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers - Montgomery High School, 2011
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  62. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (August 2016). "Findings and Recommendations Pursuant to Act 1 of 2016" (PDF). 
  63. ^ Jan Murphy (October 16, 2016). "How District schools fared overall". 
  64. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 4, 2015). "Montgomery Area High School School Performance Profile 2015". 
  65. ^ Jan Murphy (November 4, 2015). "Report card for state's high schools show overall decline". Pennlive.com. 
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  67. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Montgomery Area High School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  68. ^ Evamarie Socha (November 6, 2014). "Half of Valley districts see state test scores decline". The Daily Item. 
  69. ^ Eleanor Chute (November 21, 2014). "Pennsylvania student scores declined with reduced funding, test results show". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  70. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Montgomery Senior High School Academic Performance Data 2013". 
  71. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Area High School AYP Overview 2012, September 21, 2012
  72. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery High School AYP Overview 2003-2010, September 29, 2011
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  74. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "State Assessment System". 
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  76. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA and AYP Results". 
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  79. ^ "The 2008 PSSA Mathematics and Reading School Level Proficiency Results (by Grade and School Total)". August 2008. 
  80. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "PSSA Math and Reading results by School and Grade 2007". 
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  82. ^ Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 15, 2012). "How is your school doing?". 
  83. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  84. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  85. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2009, September 14, 2009
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  88. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Pennsylvania PSSA Science Results 2010". 
  89. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2009). "Pennsylvania PSSA Science Results 2009". 
  90. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2008, August 15, 2008
  91. ^ The Pennsylvania Basic Education/Higher Education Science and Technology Partnership, Science in Motion annual report, 2012
  92. ^ Montgomery Area School Board. "Montgomery Area High School Course Guide 2010-11" (PDF). 
  93. ^ "Pennsylvania Code §4.24 (a) High school graduation requirements". 
  94. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education, Proposed changes to Chapter 4, May 10, 2012
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  96. ^ Megan Harris (September 12, 2013). "Pennsylvania changing high school graduation requirements". Tribune Live. 
  97. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "Pennsylvania Keystone Exams Overview". 
  98. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (2010). "Rules and Regulation Title 22 PA School Code CH. 4". 
  99. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, State Board of Education Finalizes Adoption of Pennsylvania Common Core State Academic Standards and High School Graduation Requirements, March 14, 2013
  100. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Keystone Exams". 
  101. ^ Jan Murphy (January 30, 2009). "Report: One-third of local high schoolers unprepared for college". Pennlive.com. 
  102. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (January 20, 2009). "Pennsylvania College Remediation Report 2009". 
  103. ^ National Center for Education Statistics
  104. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Pennsylvania Department of Education - Dual Enrollment Guidelines.". 
  105. ^ Montgomery Area School District Administration. "Academic Dual Enrollment". 
  106. ^ "Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement.". March 2010. 
  107. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. (April 29, 2010). "Report: PA College Credit Transfer System Makes Higher Education More Affordable, Accessible". 
  108. ^ Pennsylvania College of Technology administration (2014). "Penn College NOW Dual Enrollment". 
  109. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2015). "SAT and AP Scores 2015". 
  110. ^ College Board, SAT 2015 Total Group report Pennsylvania, 2016
  111. ^ PDE, School Performance profile, November 6, 2014
  112. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2014). "SAT and ACT Scores". 
  113. ^ College Board (2014). "2014 College-Bound Seniors State Profile Report" (PDF). 
  114. ^ College Board (2013). "The 2013 SAT Report on College & Career Readiness". 
  115. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Public School SAT Scores 2011". 
  116. ^ College Board (September 2011). "SAT Scores State By State - Pennsylvania". 
  117. ^ "While U.S. SAT scores dip across the board, N.J. test-takers hold steady". September 2011. 
  118. ^ College Board (2014). "Exam Fees and Reductions: 2015". 
  119. ^ PDE, School Performance Profile - Academic Performance Data - Montgomery Area High School, December 2015
  120. ^ PDE, Montgomery Area HIgh School Academic Performance 2016, 2016
  121. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Montgomery Middle School School Fast Facts". 
  122. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Montgomery Middle School, October 4, 2013
  123. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data - Montgomery Middle School, 2010
  124. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers - Montgomery Middle School, 2011
  125. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 1, 2015). "2015 PSSA School Level Data". 
  126. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 1, 2015). "2015 PSSA State Level Data". 
  127. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (November 6, 2014). "Montgomery Area Middle School Academic Performance Data 2014". 
  128. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Montgomery Middle School Academic Performance Data 2013,". 
  129. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "MONTGOMERY MIDDLE School AYP Overview 2012". 
  130. ^ Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 15, 2012). "How is your school doing?". 
  131. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 22011, September 29, 2011
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  133. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (February 2011). "PSSA Math and Reading Results 2007". 
  134. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Montgomery Area Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012" (PDF). 
  135. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Montgomery Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2008, February 2011
  136. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (February 2011). "PSSA Science results 2008-09". 
  137. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Science Results by School and Grade 2008, February 2011
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  139. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, School Performance Profile, Montgomery Area Elementary School Fast Facts, 2015
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  142. ^ Pennsylvania Partnership for Children, Full-Day Kindergarten Enrollment, 2010
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  146. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 1, 2015). "2015 PSSA State Level Data". 
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  148. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Montgomery Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2013,". 
  149. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "Montgomery Elementary School - School AYP Overview". 
  150. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 2, 2011). "Montgomery Elementary School AYP Data Table". 
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  152. ^ New America Foundation (2003). "No Child Left Behind Overview". 
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  162. ^ Senator Patrick Browne (November 1, 2011). "Senate Education Committee Holds Hearing on Special Education Funding & Accountability". 
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  164. ^ Amy Morton, Executive Deputy Secretary, Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony, Pennsylvania Department of Education, November 11, 2011
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