Pardachirus marmoratus

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Finless sole
Pardachirus marmoratus.jpg
Finless sole, Pardachirus marmoratus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Pleuronectiformes
Family: Soleidae
Genus: Pardachirus
Species: P. marmoratus
Binomial name
Pardachirus marmoratus
(Lacépède, 1802)

Pardachirus marmoratus, also known as the finless sole or the Red Sea Moses sole, is a small fish from the Red Sea that secretes an ichthyotoxic milky substance from the base of its dorsal and anal fins. This secretion contains pardaxin, a lipophillic peptide that causes severe plasma membrane disruption resulting in cell leakage. The pardaxin containing secretion is used as a defensive mechanism against predators including sharks. Pardaxin is irritating to predator fish, particularly affecting the sensitive gills. Dr. Eugenie Clark conducted much of the early work on Pardachirus marmoratus.[1]

There is much biotechnological interest in pardaxin, early interest focused on potential shark repellent applications while newer research foucuses on antimicrobial and neurotoxic potential of pardaxin and its analogues.


  1. ^ Clark, Eugenie; Gorge, Anita (June 1979). "Toxic soles, Pardachirus marmoratus from the Red Sea and P. pavoninus from Japan, with notes on other species". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 4 (2): 103–123. doi:10.1007/bf00005447. Retrieved 15 Feb 2016.