Moshe Gil specialized in the historical interaction between Islam and the Jews, including the history of Palestine under the Islamic domination, the institution of the Exilarchate, and Jewish merchants such as the Radhanites. Gil was professoremeritus of the Chaim Rosenberg School of Jewish Studies at Tel Aviv University and held the Joseph and Ceil Mazer Chair in the History of the Jews in Muslim Lands.
In 1998, Gil was awarded the Israel Prize, for Land of Israel studies, primarily for his work analyzing some 846 document fragments from the Cairo Genizah and for his work in documenting the role of Jewish merchants in the development of medieval society.
(1997) "The Babylonian Encounter and the Exilarchic House in the Light of Cairo Geniza Documents and Parallel Arab Sources." (Conference Paper in Proceedings: Judaeo-Arabic studies proceedings of the Founding Conference of the Society for Judaeo Arabic Studies.)
(1995) "The Exilarchate." (Conference Paper in Proceedings : The Jews of medieval Islam: Community, society, and identity: proceedings of an international conference held by the Institute of Jewish Studies, University College London, 1992 )
(1992) A history of Palestine, 634-1099. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.