Motivation and Personality (book)

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Motivation and Personality
Cover of the first edition
Author Abraham Maslow
Language English
Subject Psychology
Publisher Harper & Brothers
Publication date
Media type Print
Pages 411
ISBN 9780060419875

Motivation and Personality is a book on psychology by Abraham Maslow, first published in 1954. Maslow's work deals with the subject of the nature of human fulfillment and the significance of personal relationships, implementing a conceptualization of self-actualization.[1] Underachievers have a need for social love and affection, but a self-actualized person has these "lower" needs gratified and is able to pursue his or her own path towards self-actualization.[2]

Maslow's book is perhaps the best known contemporary work on human needs. Maslow postulated a hierarchical pyramid of human needs stretching from basic physical needs at the bottom to spiritual or transcendental needs at the top.[3]

In Motivation and Personality, Maslow argues that, in order for individuals to thrive and excel, a health-fostering culture must be created.[4] Maslow is among the psychological theorists who believe that when parents fail to provide a safe, nurturing environment, their children will develop deep feelings of insecurity.[5] Maslow considers human beings to be energized by an actualizing tendency and believe that well-being occurs to the extent people can freely express their inherent potentials.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Knapp, Robert R. "Relationship of a measure of self-actualization to neuroticism and extraversion." Journal of Consulting Psychology 29, no. 2 (1965): 168.
  2. ^ Leib, Jere W., and William U. Snyder. "EFFECTS OF GROUP DISCUSSIONS ON UNDERACHIEVEMENT AND SELF-ACTUALIZATION." Journal of Counseling Psychology 14, no. 3 (1967): 282.
  3. ^ Jackson, Tim, and Nic Marks. "Consumption, sustainable welfare and human needs—with reference to UK expenditure patterns between 1954 and 1994." Ecological Economics 28, no. 3 (1999): 421-441.
  4. ^ Froh, Jeffrey J. "The history of positive psychology: Truth be told." NYS Psychologist 16, no. 3 (2004): 18-20.
  5. ^ Kasser, Tim, and Kennon M. Sheldon. "Of wealth and death: Materialism, mortality salience, and consumption behavior." Psychological science 11, no. 4 (2000): 348-351.
  6. ^ Kasser, Tim, and Richard M. Ryan. "A dark side of the American dream: correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65, no. 2 (1993): 410.