Muttahida Qaumi Movement
|Convener||Khalid Maqbool Siddiqui|
|Founded||March 18, 1984|
|Students wing||All Pakistan Muttahidda Students Organization (APMSO)|
|Charity Wing||Khidmat-e-Khalq Foundation (KKF)|
|Colors||Red, green and white|
The Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) (Urdu: متحدہ قومی موومنٹ, Muttaḥidah Qọ̄mī Mūwmaṅṫ), is a secular political party in Pakistan that was founded by Altaf Hussain in 1984. Currently the party is split between 2 main factions. MQM-London faction is controlled by Altaf Hussain from London, while MQM-Pakistan is run by Khalid Maqbool Siddiqui based in Pakistan. Its electoral symbol is a kite.
It was founded as a student organization, All Pakistan Muhajir Student Organization (APMSO), in 1978 by Altaf Hussain. APMSO gave birth to the Muhajir Qaumi Movement in 1984. In 1997, the MQM removed the term Muhajir (that denotes the party roots among the country's Urdu-speaking community) from its name and replaced it with Muttahida ("United"). The MQM is generally known as a party that holds strong mobilizing potential in Karachi, having traditionally been the dominant political force in the city.
The party has kept its influence over Pakistan's federal government as a key coalition partner since the late 1980s (1988-1990, 1990-1992, 2002-2007, 2008-2013). However, MQM parliamentarians resigned from the National Assembly, Senate and Provincial Assembly of Sindh in protest against a crackdown on party supporters.
In August 2016, after Altaf Hussain's 22 August speech, there was military crack down on the party and Nine Zero was sealed and its leaders including Farooq Sattar were arrested and most elected parliamentarians in the MQM were forced to disassociate themselves from Altaf Hussain. MQM terminated Farooq Sattar's party membership after party rules violations who formed his own.
- 1 Background
- 2 History
- 3 Late 1986 to 1990
- 4 1990 to 1999
- 5 2001 to present
- 6 Party structure
- 7 Controversy
- 8 State Operations against MQM
- 9 Electoral history
- 10 Leaders
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Muhajirs were the Urdu-speaking Muslims, who migrated to Pakistan when the country emerged independent from the British Raj in 1947. Karachi was then home to a very diverse set of ethnicities including Urdu and Gujarati speaking immigrants, Punjabis, Pashtuns, Baluch and foreigners from several South Asian countries. Muhajirs advanced in commerce and the bureaucracy, but many resented the quota system which facilitated Sindhis in gaining university slots and civil service jobs. It was this very ethnic rivalry that led to Muhajir political mobilization, which was further provoked by the stagnant economy and the condition of Biharis in Bangladesh concentration camps.
The first political organization of Muhajirs, called All Pakistan Muhajir Student Organization (APMSO), was founded on 11 June 1978 by Altaf Hussain in Karachi University. On March 18, 1984, the APMSO evolved into a proper political organization—Muhajir Qaumi Movement. It was launched to protect the Muhajir community who perceived themselves as the victims of discrimination and repression by the quota system that gave preference to certain ethnicities for admissions in educational institutions and employment in civil services.
Late 1986 to 1990
In its early years, MQM drew enormous crowds, the epitome of which was the rally of August 8, 1986 at Nishtar Park, Karachi. Three years into its existence, MQM won the November 1987 local body elections in Karachi and Hyderabad and had several mayors win unopposed. Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won the highest number of seats in the general election of 1988 and formed a coalition government in the Sindh Province with the help of MQM, which then had a larger mandate in urban Sindh in comparison to PPP whose majority of support came from rural areas of Sindh. A 59-point agreement, called the Karachi Accord, was signed which included statements about protection of the democratic system and political rights, urban development goals, and creating objective criteria for admission to universities and colleges. Within a few months of the agreement, differences surfaced and MQM ministers in the Sindh Cabinet resigned because the agreement was not implemented. Thus, the alliance broke up in October 1989 and MQM joined hands with PPP's opponents. During these times MQM made mark for public benefit initiatives. Khidmat-e-Khalq Committee, a social welfare initiative, was founded in 1978 which in 1998 transformed into Khidmat-e-Khalq Foundation (KKF).
1990 to 1999
In the elections of October 1990, MQM emerged as the third strongest party in the country. This time, it made its alliance with Pakistan Muslim League (PML) to establish a provincial government in Sindh whereas PML formed the federal government. During these times, small factions of MQM separated themselves on the main body of the party. The largest among these factions is MQM Haqiqi (English: Real MQM), which was formed by Afaq Ahmad and Amir Khan. It is generally believed that MQM Haqiqi was formed by the collusion of Pakistani Government in power and the Establishment/Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) to weaken MQM and was supported by successive federal governments and the military. In the years to come, federal governments switched between forming alliance with MQM and fighting against it to establish greater control over Karachi.
From 1992 to 1994, the MQM was the target of the Pakistan Army's Operation Clean-up, The period is regarded as the bloodiest period in Karachi's history, with thousands MQM workers and supporters killed or gone missing. Although 14 years have passed since the alleged arrest or disappearance of MQM workers, families of the missing people are still hopeful after registering the cases in the Supreme Court of Pakistan. The operation left thousands of Urdu-speaking civilians dead.
The violence gripped urban Sindh politics in the late 1980s after General Zia ul-Haq's era, and finally in 1992, the erstwhile government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif passed a resolution in assembly to launch a military operation in Karachi to target 72 'big fishes'. The federal government gave the reasoning behind this operation, known as "Operation Clean-up", as the government's attempt to end terrorism in Karachi and to seize unauthorized arms. Operation Clean-Up, which ostensibly sought to eliminate all terrorists irrespective of their political affiliation, began in June 1992. MQM perceived this operation as an attempt to wipe out the party altogether. Political violence erupted while MQM organized protests and strikes. The resulting lawlessness prevailed in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan, which led to the country's President dissolving the National Assembly.
During the 1992 violence Altaf Hussain left the country when a warrant was issued for him in connection with a murder. Since then, the political party is run by Mr Hussain from self-imposed exile in London.
MQM boycotted the subsequent 1993 general elections claiming organized military intimidation but participated in provincial elections. MQM secured 27 seats in provincial assembly, in comparison to its political rival PPP which won 56 seats. This resulted in PPP forming both the provincial and federal governments. Whereas, MQM Haqiqi failed to gain any seats at federal or provincial level. Political violence gained momentum in 1993 and 1994. During the 1994 violence, heavily political killings were reported between MQM, MQM factions, and Sindhi nationalist groups. By July 1995, more than 1,800 people had been assassinated in Karachi. In 1997, MQM boycotted the general elections and officially changed the previously maintained name 'Muhajir' to 'Muttahida'(English: "United").
Accusations of violence
In the mid-1990s, MQM created widespread political violence that affected Pakistan's Sindh province, particularly Karachi, the port city that is the country's commercial capital. In the mid-1990s, the U.S. State Department, Amnesty International, and others accused the MQM and a rival faction, MQM Haqiqi, of summary killings, torture, and other abuses. The MQM-A routinely denied involvement in violence.
The party's use of extra-legal activities in conflicts with political opponents have earned it the accusation of terrorism. The party's strongly hierarchical order and personalist leadership style led to some critics labelling the MQM as fascist.
During Operation Clean-up, MQM was accused of being anti-Pakistan and of planning a separatist break-away state, Jinnahpur. However, later some senior army officers, Brigadier (R) Imtiaz and General (R) Naseer Akhtar, confessed that Jinnahpur was "nothing but a drama" against MQM for the military operation and there was no map of Jinnahpur.
On October 19, 1992, Pakistani newspapers carried an ISPR press release, conveying Army's denial of the knowledge of the Jinnahpur plan. The ISPR, the public relations arm of the Pakistan Army stated, "The Army had no evidence concerning the so-called Jinnahpur plan, it is clarified that the newspaper story in question is baseless. The Army has neither handed over to the government any document or map as reported, nor is it in possession of any evidence concerning the so-called Jinnahpur Plan. It is also factually wrong that the matter was discussed at any meeting of the corps commander." Asif Zardari who was then President of Pakistan is said to have "said in a court premises in Karachi that the Jinnahpur scandal was created to malign the MQM."
2001 to present
In 2001, MQM boycotted the local body elections but in the 2002 general elections, MQM won 17 out of 272 seats in national assembly.
In 2008 elections, MQM won 25 seats in the National Assembly of Pakistan and 52 seats in the Provincial Assembly of Sindh.
In 2013, the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) filed a Rs 5 billion defamation suit against Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf chairman Imran Khan at the Sindh High Court for issuing statements against MQM chief Altaf Hussain.
In June 2014, the Metropolitan Police raided the London home of its leader, Altaf Hussain, on suspicion of money-laundering. Mr Hussain has lived in the UK since 1991.
The party has won majority in the local government election of Karachi and Hyderabad and brought its mayor in Karachi Metropolitan Corporation (KMC) and Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. The mayor of Karachi, Wasim Akhtar has been put behind bars without any charge by anti terror court and is waiting Sindh High Court to grant him bail in order to resume his office as the mayor of Karachi. MQM has also brought its chairman and vice chairman in the municipal committee of fourth largest city of Sindh Mirpurkhas.
Election Boycott 2018
MQM and its leader Altaf Hussain decided to boycott elections in 2018 due to military intervention in political affairs, MQM-P which is a separate party now would instead contest for elections using traditional MQM symbol kite. This would be the second boycott of general elections after 1993 and third boycott of all elections including local bodies election in 2001. The average turnout of Karachi constituencies was 40.4% in 2018 elections comparing to 55 percent in 2013.
The party is led by Altaf Hussain under whose supervision, members of the Rabita Committee (also known as Central Coordination Committee) formulate the party's political program. It consists of 24 members from Pakistan and 10 from London, United Kingdom. The party's Karachi-based organizational operations are held under its Karachi Tanzeemi Committee.
On 20 November 2011, Muttahida Qaumi Movement announced the formation of Central Executive Committee with its members drawn from Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa, Balochistan and Sindh. Addressing a Press Conference, Farooq Sattar, a senior MQM official, told that the purpose of Central Executive Committee is to assist MQM Coordination Committee and the party in organizational matters, policy-making and preparation of manifesto.
MQM has several chapters across the world in the United States, Canada, South Africa, several European countries, and Japan. Currently, the heads of MQM North America are former Federal Minister Khalid Maqbool Siddiqui and Ibad Rehman.
MQM's Party leadership faced widespread arrests after Altaf Hussain's controversial speech and later attack on ARY channel which faced lots of criticism from media and particularly from the establishment which was discontented by his words:'Pakistan Murdabad'. On the orders of Chief of Army Staff General Raheel Sharif Paramilitary forces immediately sealed MQM offices including Nine Zero. MQM's deputy convenor Shahid Pasha, parliamentary leader Farooq Sattar, Sindh assembly opposition leader Izhar ul Hasan and Rabita Committee members Qamar Mansur and Member National Assembly and ex Hyderabad Mayor Kanwar Naveed Jameel were arrested. Farooq Sattar who was released shortly, later disassociated himself from MQM founder and leader Altaf Hussain saying his statements were unacceptable and later presented and facilitated resolutions in Federal and provincial assemblies against his controversial speech, Farooq also claimed to strip MQM chief from constitution and powers. Crack down against MQM took a rapid turn when over hundred MQM Unit and Sector offices have been demolished and lots of MQM workers rounded off.
On August 21, 2016, according to Election Commission of Pakistan, Nadeem Nusrat and not Farooq sattar was the leader of MQM. and According to Nadeem Nusrat, Minus Altaf formula is not acceptable.
MQM leadership in Sindh Assembly declared that it wants MQM leader Altaf Hussain tried for high treason and also removed Nadeem Nusrat, Convenor of the party along with Wasay Jaleel, Mustafa Azizabadi etc.
On 22 September 2016, MQM convenor Nadeem Nusrat termed the moves of Farooq Sattar against party rules and illegal and emphecised he is an elected Convenor and dissolved entire party infrastructure including Rabita Committee and ordered mass resignation of MQM parliamentarians from assemblies and to contest new elections on their own.
In a media conference the spokesman for the United States State Department, John Kirby, stated that US was aware of the arrests of the MQM leaders and was closely monitoring the events.
Although media refers to Muttahida Qaumi Movement as MQM-London, MQM has instructed media to use the original name Muttahida Qaumi Movement only where as Farooq Sattar led faction has adopted the name MQM-Pakistan.
State Operations against MQM
Pakka Qila Operation (26, 27 May 1990)
Operation was launched by Sindh Police to target MQM workers in Pakka Qilla Hyderabad. Over 250 besieged innocent men, women, children was massacred during the operation which carried on for 275 hours before Pakistan army men eventually moved in.
Operation Clean-up (1992 - 1994)
Due to serious doubts over credibility of operation due to fake encounters, extra judicial killings and rise of killings in Karachi, Benazir Bhutto's government was dismissed by the then President of Pakistan, Farooq Ahmed Laghari.
Karachi Targeted Action (2013 - present)
Due to rise in Target killing and organised crimes of extortion, kidnapping for ransom and increased crime rate of the city, Karachi operation began by the Nawaz Sharif government in 2013 with the intention of creating peace in the city .Even though it was claimed by the interior minister Chaudhry Nisar that the intentions of the operation were apolitical, there have been systematic crackdowns against MQM. In 2015 MQM's Headquarter Nine Zero was raided twice by the paramilitary Rangers and many top officials of MQM were taken into custody. On August 22, 2016, The Headquarter was sealed and hundreds of MQM offices were bulldozed.
Many Journalists opine that Army establishment is behind the formation of PSP and MQM-Pakistan. Many MQM officials including Prof. Zafar Arif, Kanwar Khalid Yunus, adv Sathi ishaq, Amjadullah khan, Qamar Mansur, Shahid Pasha have been in detention since four months.
MNA Kanwar Naveed Jameed, MPA Kamran farooqui have also been arrested by the paramilitary forces.
Human Rights Violations by the state
1994-1996 targeted actions saw gross human rights violations by the state organisations which included kidnapping for random, extrajudicial executions, disappearance, torture, fake encounters etc.
The speeches and images of Altaf Hussain have been banned by the decision of Lahore High Court's justice Naqvi and Anti-Terror court has issued arrest warrants of Altaf Hussain numerous times.
Renowned journalists have accepted that targeted operations are only against MQM.
During Nine Zero raid, MQM worker Waqas Shah was brutally shot down by Ranger's 9mm pistol fire from point blank range. The video evidence released on electronic media confirmed the incident.
Farooq Sattar's coordination officer Syed Aftab Ahmed was killed while in the custody of paramilitary forces. Initially the force denied torture and stated that he died of heart attack but it had to accept after social media publicised videos of torture marks on Aftab's body and autopsy report conforming death due to torture.
As a result of operation, MQM claims 67 of its workers have been extra judicially murdered the paramilitary force while 150 are still missing and more than 5,000 are behind bars. The Amnesty International, US state department, United Nations Human rights commission has published several documents highlighting gross human rights violations during the targeted operation against MQM.
|General elections||Voting percentile %||Voting turnout||Seating graph||Presiding Convener of the party||Parliamentary position|
13 / 207
|Imran Farooq||In alliance with PPP/In Opposition|
15 / 207
|Altaf Hussain||In alliance with PML-N/In Opposition|
0 / 207
|Altaf Hussain||See: Operation Blue Fox|
12 / 207
|Farooq Sattar||In alliance with PML-NIn Opposition|
13 / 272
|Farooq Sattar||In alliance with PML-Q|
25 / 272
|Babar Ghauri||In alliance with PPP|
24 / 272
|Faisal Sabzwari||In Opposition|
0 / 272
|Altaf Hussain||See: Muttahida Qaumi Movement-Pakistan|
Post split election campaigns
MQM took part in local bodies by election from Union Committee 46 Hyderabad which was vacated by the death of counselor as independent candidate. MQM supported independent candidate Asif Baig defeated the candidate of MQM-Pakistan by a healthy margin.
- Farooq Sattar
- Wasay Jalil
- Mustafa Azizabadi
- Qasim Ali Raza
- Momin Khan Momin
- Dr Hassan Zafar Arif (Rabita Committee Pakistan)
- Sathi Ishaque advocate
- Zafar Rajput (Hyderabad)
- Dr. Nadeem Ehsan
- Siddiqi, Farhan Hanif (2012), The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir ethnic movements, Routledge, p. 116
- Talbot, Ian (2002), "The Punjabization of Pakistan: Myth or Reality", Pakistan: Nationalism without a Nation?, Zed Books, p. 65
- Cohen, Stephen P. (2011), "Pakistan: Arrival and Departure", The future of Pakistan, The Brookings Institution, p. 22,
The avowedly secular Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM)...
- Lyon, Peter (2008), "Mohajir Qaumi Mahaz", Conflict between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 115,
Despite its ethnic-based politics, the MQM claims to be the only significant political force in Pakistan to stand up openly for secular values.
- "Pakistan: Human rights crisis in Karachi". Amnesty International. 1996-02-01. Archived from the original on 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- Web Desk (April 26, 2013). "Second MQM strike halts activity in Karachi". Express Tribune. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- Mitra, Subrata Kumar; Mike Enskat; Clemens Spiess (2004). Political parties in South Asia (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 366. ISBN 0-275-96832-4.
- "UK envoy adds new dimension to Altaf controversy". The News. 16 May 2013.
- "Pakistan MQM party quits parliament 'over crackdown'". BBC. 12 August 2015.
- "MQM London dismisses Farooq Sattar from party's primary membership — Pakistan — Dunya News". dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 2016-10-14.
- "UNHCR | Refworld | Pakistan: Information on Mohajir/Muttahida Qaumi Movement-Altaf (MQM-A)". United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. 2004-02-09. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Cohen, Stephen P. (2004). The idea of Pakisan (illustrated ed.). Brookings Institution Press. p. 382. ISBN 0-8157-1502-1. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- Walsh, Declan; Matthew Taylor (2007-06-02). "The Karachi ruling party 'run like the mafia' from an office block in London". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
- Kronstadt, K. Alan (2008-01-24). "Pakistan's Scheduled 2008 Election: Background" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, Govt. of USA. Retrieved 2009-07-28.
- Peshimam, Gibran (2009-03-18). "25 years of MQM: a critical analysis". The News. Archived from the original on August 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- Haq, Farhat (1999-11-01). "Rise of the MQM in Pakistan: Politics of Ethnic Mobilization". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 35 (11): 990–1004. doi:10.1525/as.1995.35.11.01p00677.
- Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 277. ISBN 1-57607-712-8. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- "About KKF". KKF official.
- "KARACHI: Families of 'missing' MQM workers still hopeful". Dawn. 22 Feb 2010. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010.
- Ahmar, Moonis (October 1996). "Ethnicity and State Power in Pakistan: The Karachi Crisis". Asian Survey. 36. University of California Press. pp. 1031–1048. JSTOR 2645632.
- "Mysterious world of a movement in exile". The Independent. London. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- Lawson, Alastair (2007-05-16). "Running Pakistan's biggest city — from London". BBC News, London. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- Ford, Jonathan (1995-07-13). "Fighting Benazir by fax from Mill Hill". The Independent. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Ghosh, Teesta (2003), "Ethnic Conflict in Sindh and its Impact on Pakistan", Ethnic Conflict and Secessionism in South and Southeast Asia: Causes, Dynamics, Solutions, Sage, p. 111
- Khan, Adeel (2005), Politics of Identity: Ethnic Nationalism and the State in Pakistan, Sage, p. 163
- Ahmed, Ishtiaq (1991), "The politics of ethnicity in Sindh: Changing perceptions of group identity", Asian Societies in Comparative Perspective, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 3, p. 809
- Das, Suranjan (2001), Kashmir and Sindh: Nation-Building, Ethnicity and Regional Politics in South Asia, Anthem Press, p. 131
- "Jinnah Pur map was a drama: Brigadier Imtiaz". The Nation. 24 August 2009.
- "Truth in allegations of Jinnahpur uncovered". Geo News. 2009-08-24. Archived from the original on 2009-08-27.
- Abbasi, Ansar (2009-09-03). "Where PPP, PML-N and MQM stood on Jinnahpur in 1992". The News. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- "Detailed Position of Political Parties / Alliances In National Assembly General Elections - 2002". Election Commission of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 2010-11-30. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- "MQM files Rs5bn defamation suit against Imran Khan". Dawn. July 23, 2013.
- "Pakistan MQM leader Altaf Hussain arrested in London". Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- Keating, Joshua (November 12, 2008). "What FP didn't say about the mayor of Karachi". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "Mustafa Kamal second best mayor in the world". Dawn. 10 November 2008.
- "ECP — Election Commission of Pakistan". ecp.gov.pk. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
- "Unpredictable election results expected in Karachi". The Nation. 2018-07-06. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
- "London faction's election boycott can dent MQM-P vote bank, admits Sattar". Retrieved 2018-07-27.
- "The Battle for Karachi | Newsline". Newsline. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
- "Mustafa Kamal, 3 others named in MQM Rabita Committee". Archived from the original on 2015-04-13.
- "MQM announces names of newly formed CEC". Dawn. 20 Nov 2011.
- "MQM USA official". MQM USA.
- "Nine Zero sealed after MQM workers attack media house — The Express Tribune". 2016-08-22. Retrieved 2016-09-24.
- "Three MQM leaders remanded for three days in rioting, treason cases — The Express Tribune". 2016-08-23. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "Ratification of decisions by Altaf no longer required: Farooq Sattar — Pakistan — Dunya News". Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "Farooq Sattar says MQM disowned Altaf Hussain, London Secretariat | SAMAA TV". Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "MQM Pakistan revokes membership of London leaders from RC | ARY NEWS". arynews.tv. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "Leaders of political parties — ECP" (PDF).
- "Nadeem Nusrat says MQM is nothing without its 'chief' | ARY NEWS". arynews.tv. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- "Dailytimes | MQM-London 'sends packing' Farooq Sattar and Co". dailytimes.com.pk. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "In a first, MQM-Pakistan wants Altaf tried for high treason — The Express Tribune". 2016-09-21. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "MQM-London dissolves Rabita Committee, organizational set-up | SAMAA TV". Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "US 'closely' monitoring arrests of MQM leaders: State Dept — The Express Tribune". 2016-09-17. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "متحدہ قومی موومنٹ کو ایم کیوایم لندن ہرگزنہ لکھااورنہ پکاراجائے ۔ترجمان متحدہ قومی موومنٹ". www.mqm.org. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "MQM Pakistan". MQM Pakistan. Retrieved 2016-10-24.
- "Hyderabad: MQM's Pucca Qila". DAWN.COM. 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- "Major's kidnapping, Jinnahpur, 1992, 1994 anti-MQM operations". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "Major's kidnapping, Jinnahpur, 1992, 1994 anti-MQM operations". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- Bahadur, Kalim (1998-01-01). Democracy in Pakistan: Crises and Conflicts. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124100837.
- "Benazir violated rules: Leghari". DAWN.COM. 2003-12-28. Retrieved 2017-01-07.
- (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Why Pakistan's army is targeting the MQM party | Asia | DW.COM | 23.08.2016". DW.COM. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | THE MOHAJIR QAUMI MOVEMENT (MQM) IN KARACHI JANUARY 1995-APRIL 1996". Refworld. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "MQM is Right ! Karachi Operation is just Against MQM. Arif Hameed Bhatti Senior Journalist — Video Dailymotion". Dailymotion. 2015-08-26. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- S.I.M (2015-03-11), Who Killed MQM Worker Waqas Shah, retrieved 2017-01-01
- "40pc of Aftab Ahmed's body covered in bruises, reveals postmortem". DAWN.COM. 2016-05-05. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "Autopsy report confirms Aftab tortured | SAMAA TV". Samaa TV. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Pakistan: Investigation crucial after Karachi political activist tortured and killed in custody". Refworld. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "Human Rights group alarmed at extra-judicial killings of MQM workers' by para-military force in Pakistan". OpEdNews. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "'US concerned about allegations of rights violations in Pakistan'". The Indian Express. 2016-08-31. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "BBC Urdu Sairbeen (Aaj News) Report on extra judicial killing & enforced disappearance of MQM workers — Video Dailymotion". Dailymotion. 2014-04-30. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2015". www.state.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "UN notified Pakistani state 3 times for 144 missing MQM workers: UN Human Rights letter". Siasat.pk Forums. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- Wolf, Lucien (Sep 2015). "Pakistan Passes illegal bill" (PDF). http://www.kcwtoday.co.uk. Retrieved 17 Sep 2015. External link in
|website=(help)[permanent dead link]
- "UN has acknowledged the occurrence of extra judicial target killing, enforced disappearance of MQM by Pakistani govt and pakistani army, ISI". Siasat.pk Forums. Retrieved 2017-01-01.[permanent dead link]
- "Extrajudicial killings rise in Pakistan police crackdown in Karachi". Reuters. 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "Has MQM-London unveiled its new election strategy?". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 2017-04-18.
- Human Rights Watch (HRW). WORLD REPORT 1998, "Pakistan" (Dec 1997), https://www.hrw.org/worldreport/Asia-09.htm#P823_214912
- "MQM brings ahead common man in polls: Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry", Pakistan State Times (2012 April 10)