NBFC & MFI in India

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A Non Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is[1] a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 of India, engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares, stock, bonds hire-purchase, insurance business or chit business but does not include any institution whose principal business includes agriculture, industrial activity or the sale, purchase or construction of immovable property.[2]

The working and operations of NBFCs are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) within the framework of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (Chapter III-B) and the directions issued by it.

History of NBFCs in India[3][edit]

The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 amended on 1st December, 1964 by Reserve Bank Amendment Act, 1963. In this new 'Chapter III-B' introduced to Regulate 'Deposit Accepting' NBFCs.

Different types of Committees to Review existing framework of NBFCs

James S. Raj Committee[4][edit]

In early 1970s Government of India asked Banking Commission to Study the Functioning of Chit Funds and Examining activities of Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries. In 1972, Banking Commission recommended Uniform Chit Fund Legislation to whole country.

Reserve Bank of India prepared Model Bill to regulate the conduct of chit funds and referred to study group under the Chairmanship of James S. Raj.

In June 1974, study group recommended ban on Prize Chit and other Schemes. Directed the Parliament to enact a bill which ensures uniformity in the provisions applicable to chit funds throughout the country.

Parliament enacted two acts. Prize Chits and Money Circulation Schemes (Banning) Act, 1978 and Chit Funds Act, 1982

Chakravarty Committee[5][better source needed][6][edit]

During Planning Era, Reserve Bank of India tried best to 'Manage Money' and evolve 'Sound Monetary' system but no much appreciable success in realising social objectives of monetary policy of the country.

In December 1982, Dr Manmohan Singh, Governor of RBI appointed committee under the Chairmanship of 'Prof. Sukhamoy Chakravarty' to review functioning of monetary system in india.

Committee recommended assessment of links among the Banking Sector, the Non-Banking Financial Institutions and the Un-organised sector to evaluate various instruments of Monetary and Credit policy in terms of their impact on the Credit System and the Economy.

Types of NBFCs in India[edit]

Different types of NBFCs are as follows:

Asset Finance Company (AFC)[edit]

An AFC is a company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the financing of physical assets supporting productive/economic, such as automobiles, tractors, lathe machines, cranes, generator sets, earth moving and material handling equipments, moving on own power and general purpose industrial machines. Principal business for this purpose is defined as aggregate of financing real/physical assets supporting economic activity and income arising therefrom is not less than 60% of its total assets and total income respectively.[7]

Investment Company (IC)[edit]

IC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the acquisition of securities

Loan Company (LC)[edit]

LC means any company which is a financial institution carrying on as its principal business the providing of finance whether by making loans or advances or otherwise for any activity other than its own but does not include an Asset Finance Company.

Infrastructure Finance Company (IFC)[edit]

IFC is a non-banking finance company a) which deploys at least 75 per cent of its total assets in infrastructure loans, b) has a minimum Net Owned Funds of ₹ 300 crores, c) has a minimum credit rating of ‘A ‘or equivalent d) and a CRAR of 15%.

Infrastructure Debt Fund: Non- Banking Financial Company (IDF-NBFC)[edit]

IDF-NBFC is a company registered as NBFC to facilitate the flow of long term debt into infrastructure projects. IDF-NBFC raise resources through Multiple-Currency bonds of minimum 5-year maturity. Only Infrastructure Finance Companies (IFC) can sponsor IDF-NBFCs.

NBFC-Factors[edit]

NBFC Factors has principle business of factoring. Factoring is a financial transaction and a type of debtor finance in which a business sells its accounts receivable (i.e., invoices) to a third party (called a factor) at a discount. These NBFcs provide credit against accounts receivable.[8]

Gold Loan NBFCs in India[edit]

Over the years, gold loan NBFCs witnessed an upsurge in Indian financial market, owing mainly to the recent period of appreciation in gold price and consequent increase in the demand for gold loan by all sections of society, especially the poor and middle class to make the both ends meet. Though there are many NBFCs offering gold loans in India, about 95 per cent of the gold loan business is handled by three Kerala based companies, viz., Muthoot Finance, Manapuram Finance and Muthoot Fincorp. Growth of gold loan NBFCs eventuating from various factors including Asset Under Management (AUM), number of branches, and also the number of customers etc. Growth of gold loan NBFCs occurred both in terms of the size of their balance sheet and their physical presence that compelled to increase their dependence on public funds including bank finance and non-convertible debentures. Aggressive structuring of gold loans resulting from the uncomplicated, undemanding and fast process of documentation along with the higher Loan to Value (LTV) ratio include some of the major factors that augment the growth of Gold loan NBFCs.[9]

Residuary Non-Banking Companies (RNBCs)[edit]

Residuary Non-Banking Company is a class of NBFC which is a company and has as its principal business the receiving of deposits, under any scheme or arrangement or in any other manner and not being Investment, Asset Financing, Loan Company. These companies are required to maintain investments as per directions of RBI, in addition to liquid assets.

RBI relaxes norms for NBFCs[edit]

NBFCs registered with the Reserve Bank of India may take part in the insurance agency business on a fee basis and without risk participation or the need to seek the bank's approval.

In a notification issued, the RBI said such NBFCs should obtain permission from the Insurance Regulatory and Deveas a "composite corporate agent" with insurance companies.[10][11]

Difference between NBFCs & Banks[edit]

NBFCs perform functions similar to that of banks but there are a few differences-

  • Provides Banking services to People without holding a Bank license,
  • An NBFC cannot accept Demand Deposits,
  • An NBFC is not a part of the payment and settlement system and as such,
  • An NBFC cannot issue Cheques drawn on itself, and
  • Deposit insurance facility of the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation is not available for NBFC depositors, unlike banks,
  • An NBFC is not required to maintain Reserve Ratios (CRR, SLR etc.)
  • An NBFC cannot indulge Primarily in Agricultural, Industrial Activity, Sale-Purchase, Construction of Immovable Property
  • Foreign Investment allowed up to 100%.

MFI[edit]

Micro Finance Institutions, also known as MFIs,[12] a microfinance institution is an organization that offers financial services to low income populations. Almost all give loans to their members, and many offer insurance, deposit and other services. A great scale of organizations are regarded as microfinance institutes. They are those that offer credits and other financial services to the representatives of poor strata of population (except for extremely poor strata).[13][14]

MFIs go for NBFC licences[edit]

An Increasing number of microfinance institutions (MFIs) are seeking non-banking finance company (NBFC) status from RBI to get wide access to funding, including bank finance.[15]

Exemptions granted to NBFCs engaged in microfinance activities[edit]

The Task Force on Supportive Policy and Regulatory Framework for Microfinance set up by NABARD in 1999 provided various recommendations. Accordingly, it was decided to exempt NBFCs which are engaged in micro financing activities, licensed under Section 8 of the Companies Act, 2013, and which do not accept public deposits, from the purview of Sections 45-IA (registration), 45-IB (maintenance of liquid assets) and 45-IC (transfer of profits to the Reserve Fund) of the RBI Act, 1934.[16] 010

MFIs & SHG-Bank linkage programme[edit]

In a joint fact-finding study on microfinance conducted by the Reserve Bank of India and a few major banks, the following observations were made:

  • Some of the microfinance institutions (MFIs) financed by banks or acting as their intermediaries or partners appear to be focusing on relatively better banked areas, including areas covered by the SHG-Bank linkage programme. Competing MFIs were operating in the same area, and trying to reach out to the same set of poor, resulting in multiple lending and overburdening of rural households.
  • Many MFIs supported by banks were not engaging themselves in capacity building and empowerment of the groups to the desired extent. The MFIs were disbursing loans to the newly formed groups within 10–15 days of their formation, in contrast to the practice

obtaining in the SHG – Bank linkage programme, which takes about six to seven months for group formation and nurturing. As a result, cohesiveness and a sense of purpose were not being built up in the groups formed by these MFIs.

  • Banks, as principal financiers of MFIs, do not appear to be engaging them with regard to their systems, practices and lending policies with a view to ensuring better transparency and adherence to best practices. many cases, no review of MFI operations were undertaken after sanctioning the credit facility.[17]

MFIs of India[edit]

Forbes magazine named seven microfinance institutes in India in the list of the world's top 50 microfinance institutions.

Bandhan, as well as two other Indian MFIs—Microcredit Foundation of India (ranked 13th) and Saadhana Microfin Society (15th) – have been placed above Bangladesh-based Grameen Bank (which along with its founder Mohammed Yunus, was awarded the Nobel Prize). Besides Bandhan, the Microcredit Foundation of India and Saadhana Microfin Society, other Indian entries include Grameen Koota (19th), Sharada's Women's Association for Weaker Section (23rd), SKS Microfinance Private Ltd (44th) and Asmitha Microfin Ltd (29th).[18][19]

Criticisms[edit]

Recently, microfinance has come under fire in the state of Andhra Pradesh due to allegations of MFIs using coercive recollection practices and charging usurious interest rates.[20] These charges resulted in the state government's passing of the Andhra Pradesh Microfinance Ordinance on October 15, 2010. The Ordinance requires MFIs to register with the state government and gives the state government the power, suo moto, to shut down MFI activity.[21] A number of NBFCs have been affected by the ordinance, including sector heavyweight SKS Microfinance.[22]

Important Links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/NBFC
  2. ^ http://www.rediff.com/money/2007/jul/20nbfc.htm
  3. ^ "A Manual of NBFIs" (PDF). Meridian Business Consultants Pvt. Ltd. 
  4. ^ "Financial Services by Pearson Education, India". Google Books. 
  5. ^ "Chakravarty Committee Report". Wikipedia. 
  6. ^ "Chakravarty Committee Report". You Article Library. 
  7. ^ "Reserve Bank of India - Frequently Asked Questions". www.rbi.org.in. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  8. ^ "Fintech is Hot: All about NBFC Registration - Enterslice". Enterslice. 2017-05-01. Retrieved 2017-05-04. 
  9. ^ https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/64250/1/MPRA_paper_64250.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2004/02/12/stories/2004021203031600.htm
  11. ^ http://rbi.org.in/scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=1481&Mode=0
  12. ^ http://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/MFI
  13. ^ "Micro Financial Institutions | Microfinance and microcredit". Microfinance and microcredit. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  14. ^ "Homepage - MFIN". MFIN. Retrieved 2015-11-29. 
  15. ^ http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/News_By_Industry/Finance__Insurance/Finance/MFIs_go_for_NBFC_licences_for_better_access_to_funds/articleshow/988065.cms
  16. ^ http://rbi.org.in/scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=3651&Mode=0
  17. ^ http://rbi.org.in/scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=3175&M
  18. ^ http://www.forbes.com/2007/12/20/microfinance-philanthropy-credit-biz-cz_ms_1220microfinance_table.html
  19. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/international-business/india-in-forbes-list-of-leading-microfinance-institutes/articleshow/2653281.cms
  20. ^ http://indiamicrofinance.com/andhra-mfi-suicide-972532.html
  21. ^ http://indiamicrofinance.com/download-andhra-microfinance-ordinance-908172.html
  22. ^ http://in.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-52994520101118