Nerodia sipedon pleuralis

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Nerodia sipedon pleuralis
Midland Water Snake (Nerodia sipedon pleuralis).JPG
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Colubridae
Genus: Nerodia
Species:
Subspecies:
N. s. pleuralis
Trinomial name
Nerodia sipedon pleuralis
(Cope, 1892)[1]
Synonyms
  • Natrix fasciata pleuralis Cope, 1892
  • Natrix sipedon pleuralis
    Conant & Bridges, 1939[2]
  • Nerodia sipedon pleuralis
    H.M. Smith & Brodie, 1982[3]

The midland water snake (Nerodia sipedon pleuralis), a subspecies of the northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon), is a nonvenomous natricine snake, which is endemic to North America.[4][1]

Geographic range[edit]

It is found in the central and southern United States, more specifically, in Alabama, northern Arkansas, northwestern Georgia, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, western Kentucky, southeastern Louisiana, Mississippi, southern Missouri, southeastern Oklahoma, northwestern South Carolina, and western and southeastern Tennessee.[5]

Description[edit]

Anteriorly, it has a pattern of dark crossbands on a light ground color. Posteriorly, the crossbands are replaced by three rows of alternating squarish blotches. The light spaces between the crossbands or blotches are wider than the dark markings. On the belly, the crescent-shaped markings on the ventrals tend to form two stripe-like series.[6]

The maximum recorded total length for this subspecies is 131 cm (51.5 inches). However, most adults are 56–102 cm (22-40 inches) in total length.[5]

Habitat[edit]

This snake lives in wet habitats such as marshes, ponds, streams, and Swales. In the southern United States it follows river valleys to the Gulf Coast.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). www.itis.gov.
  2. ^ Conant, R., and W. Bridges. (1939). What Snake Is That? A Field Guide to the Snakes of the United States East of the Rocky Mountains. D. Appleton-Century. New York and London. Frontispiece map + viii + 163 pp. + Plates A-C, 1-32. (Natrix sipedon pleuralis, p. 102 + Plate 18, Figure 52.)
  3. ^ Smith, H.M., and E.D. Brodie, Jr. (1982). Reptiles of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Golden Press. New York. 240 pp. ISBN 0-307-13666-3 (paperback). (Nerodia sipedon pleuralis, p. 156)
  4. ^ Nerodia sipedon at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 28 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Conant, R. (1975). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. xviii + 429 pp. + 48 plates. ISBN 0-395-19979-4 (hardback), ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (paperback). (Natrix sipedon pleuralis, pp. 145-146 + Plate 20 + Map 99.)
  6. ^ Schmidt, K.P., and D.D. Davis. (1941). Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. G.P. Putnam's Sons. New York. 365 pp. (Natrix sipedon pleuralis, pp. 220-222, Figure 72.)

Further reading[edit]

  • Cope, E.D. (1892). A Critical Review of the Characters and Variations of the Snakes of North America. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 14: 589-694. (Natrix fasciata pleuralis, p. 672.)
  • Wright, A.H. and A.A. Wright. (1957). Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Comstock. Ithaca and London. 1,105 pp. (in 2 volumes) (Natrix sipedon pleuralis, pp. 537–541, Figure 160. + Map 42. on p. 512.)