Nickel chromate

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Nickel chromate
Nickel chromate.JPG
Names
IUPAC name
Nickel(II) chromate
Other names
nickelous chromate
nickel chromate
nickel(II) chromium(VI) oxide
Identifiers
12018-18-7 N
ChemSpider 55656 N
EC Number 238-766-5
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
PubChem 61767
Properties
NiCrO4
Molar mass 174.71 g/mol
Appearance rust colored powder
insoluble in water
Solubility soluble in hydrochloric acid
Hazards
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other anions
nickel(II) oxide
nickel(II) hydroxide
nickel(II) sulfate
nickel(II) chloride
Other cations
sodium chromate
potassium chromate
zinc chromate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references
Nickel chromate solution in hydrochloric acid

Nickel (II) Chromate (NiCrO4) is an acid-soluble compound, red-brown in color, with high tolerances for heat. It and the ions that compose it have been linked to tumor formation and gene mutation, particularly to wildlife.[1]

Structure[edit]

The structure of Nickel (II) Chromate would assume a tetrahedral geometry, with the positively charged Nickel (II) ion stabilizing the Chromate’s -2 charge.

Synthesis[edit]

Nickel (II) Chromate can be formed in the lab by reaction of NiCl2 and CrCl3 with Sodium Hypochlorite in a basic solution:[2]

2 NiCl2 + 2 CrCl3 + 10 NaOH + 3 NaClO → 2 NiCrO4 + 10 NaCl + 5 H2O

Reaction[edit]

Nickel (II) Chromate reacts with Hydroxide Ions in the reaction displayed below. While the products are known, the exact path of the reaction is somewhat hazy:

NiCrO4 + NaOH → Ni(OH)2 + Ni4(OH)6CrO4

Application[edit]

Aeronautics:

In mixing Nickel (II) Chromate with Aluminates or Cobalt Chromate, a binary compound known as a spinel is formed that is able to withstand temperatures up to 1000 °C. The products from these mixings can be used as oxidation-resistive components in airplane and space shuttle coatings.[3]

Toxicity[edit]

Dermatitis:

Both nickel-containing and chromium-containing compounds are prone to trigger allergic reactions on the skin—often at contact. Given enough exposure, most anyone can react in this way (which is a form of eczema), though those with a nickel or chromium sensitivity are most susceptible.[4]

Carcinogenetic Properties:

Nickel (II) Chromate has been determined to alter H3K4, a common gene activator. Methylation of this compound by NiCrO4 can occur at millimolar and micromolar concentrations, causing mutations in the gene’s tail region. These mutations have been linked to lung cancer and other maladies, making Nickel (II) Chromate an occupational exposure hazard.[5]

Similarly, studies have shown that Nickel (II) Chromate can increase genotoxicity by way of oxidative stress, as well.[6] Malignant tumors and sarcomas have been noted in several studies via injection.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eisler, R. (1998). Nickel Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: a Synoptic Review. Laurel: U.S. Geological Survey
  2. ^ Information found on original Wikipedia page
  3. ^ Zaplantznsky, I. (1971). Thermal Expansion of Some Nickel and Cobalt Spinels and Their Solid Solutions. Cleveland: NASA
  4. ^ Dermatology, A. A. (2010). Contact Dermatitis. Retrieved October 30, 2011, from EczemaNet: http://www.skincarephysicians.com/eczemanet/contact_dermatitis.html
  5. ^ Zhou, X. e. (209). Effects of nickel, chromate, and arsenite on histone 3 lysine methylation. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology , 78-84
  6. ^ Costa, M. e. (2002). The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nickel and Chromate Genotoxicity. Mol Cell Biochemistry , 234-235