Nitrosomonadales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nitrosomonadales
Spirillen.jpg
Spirillum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Betaproteobacteria
Order: Nitrosomonadales
Families

Nitrosomonadaceae[1]
Methylophilacae[1]
Spirillaceae[2][1]
Thiobacillaceae[1]
Gallionellaceae[3][1]
Sterolibacteraceae[1]

The Nitrosomonadales[1] are an order of the class Betaproteobacteria in the phylum "Proteobacteria".[4] Like all members of their class, they are Gram-negative.

The order is divided into six families:
Nitrosomonadaceae (type family) comprises the genera Nitrosomonas (type genus), Nitrosolobus and Nitrosospira.[1]
Methylophilaceae comprises the genera Methylophilus (type genus), Methylobacillus and Methylovorus.[1]
Spirillaceae comprises the genus Spirillum (type genus) [2][1]
Thiobacillaceae comprises the genera Thiobacillus (type genus), Annwoodia, Sulfuritortus.[1]
Gallionellaceae comprises the genera Gallionella (type genus), Ferriphaselus, Sulfuriferula, Sulfurirhabdus and Sulfuricella.[1][3]
Sterolibacteraceae comprises the genera Sterolibacterium, Sulfurisoma, Denitratisoma, Sulfuritalea, Georgfuchsia, Sulfurisoma and Methyloversatilis.[1]

Members of the genus Nitrosomonas oxidize ammonium ions into nitrite,[4] - a process called nitrification - and are important in the nitrogen cycle. Other autotrophic genera such as Thiobacillus and Annwoodia oxidize reduced inorganic sulfur ions such as thiosulfate and sulfide into sulfate and have key roles in the sulfur cycle. Methylotrophs such as Methylophilus oxidize compounds such as methanol into carbon dioxide and are key to the carbon cycle. Gallionella and Ferriphaselus oxidise ferric iron (Fe3+) ions into ferric hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) during autotrophic growth, and thus have roles in the carbon cycle and the iron cycle. As such, the Nitrosomonadales are critical to biogeochemical cycling of the elements and many species have key roles in principle biochemical processes.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Boden, R; Hutt, LP, Rae AW (2017) Reclassification of Thiobacillus aquaesulis (Wood & Kelly, 1995) as Annwoodia aquaesulis gen. nov., comb. nov., transfer of Thiobacillus (Beijerinck, 1904) from the Hydrogenophilales to the Nitrosomonadales, proposal of Hydrogenophilalia class. nov. within the 'Proteobacteria', and four new families within the orders Nitrosomonadales and Rhodocyclales. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 67: 1191-1205
  2. ^ a b Migula (1894). "Ueber ein neues system der bakterien". Arbeiten aus dem Bakteriologischen Institut der Technischen Hochschule zu Karlsruhe. 1: 235–238. 
  3. ^ a b Henrici AT, Johnson D (1935). "Stalked bacteria, a new order of Schizomycetes". Journal of Bacteriology. 29: 3–4. 
  4. ^ a b Garrity, George M.; Brenner, Don J.; Krieg, Noel R.; Staley, James T. (eds.) (2005). Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume Two: The Proteobacteria, Part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. New York, New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-24145-6.

External links[edit]