Nominative determinism (ND) is the hypothesis that a person's name can have a significant role in determining key aspects of job, profession or even character. Writing in 1953, Carl Jung gave the example of a food minister named Herr Feist ("Mr Stout"). He also mentioned his own last name and that of fellow psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, which mean "joy" and "young" in German. He pointed out that they are potential examples of what he called the compulsion of the name due to Freud's pleasure principle and Jung's idea of rebirth.
Such a connection between name and character was a commonly held notion in the ancient world and the Latin term nomen est omen (from Greek όνομα ορίζοντας) is still commonly heard in English and other languages, but translations such as nomenclature is destiny, Jung's compulsion of the name, and others are sometimes heard. The very new term nominative determinism was recently coined by the New Scientist editor John Hoyland and is not yet very widely known.
Synonyms and related concepts include: aptronym, apronym, aptonym, euonym, jobonyms, 'namephreaks', onomastic determinism, 'perfect fit last names' (PFLNs), psychonymics. Tom Stoppard in his play Jumpers labelled the phenomenon cognomen syndrome.
A related term, to refer to a name peculiarly suited to its owner, is the aptronym, said to have been coined by the US newspaper columnist Franklin P. Adams. The distinction between cognitive determinacy and a mere aptronym is seen as subtle but fundamental: i.e. post hoc vs propter hoc. ND researchers are sometimes referred to as comiconomenclaturists — connoisseurs of humorous names.
Origin and meaning
The term nominative determinism had its origin in the 'Feedback' column of the British popular science magazine New Scientist in 1994:
- "We recently came across a new book, Pole Positions — The Polar Regions and the Future of the Planet, by Daniel Snowman. Then, a couple of weeks later, we received a copy of London Under London — A Subterranean Guide, one of the authors of which is Richard Trench. So it was interesting to see Jen Hunt of the University of Manchester stating in the October issue of The Psychologist: "Authors gravitate to the area of research which fits their surname." Hunt's example is an article on incontinence in the British Journal of Urology by A. J. Splatt and D. Weedon.
- We feel it's time to open up this whole issue to rigorous scrutiny. You are invited to send in examples of the phenomenon in the fields of science and technology (with references that check out, please) together with any hypotheses you may have on how it comes about. No prizes, other than seeing your name in print and knowing you have contributed to the advance of human knowledge."
- "We find ourselves in something of a quandary when it comes to making up our minds about the phenomenon which Stekel calls the 'compulsion of the name'. What he means by this is the sometimes quite gross coincidence between a man's name and his peculiarities or profession. For instance ... Herr Feist (Mr Stout) is the food minister, Herr Rosstäuscher (Mr Horsetrader) is a lawyer, Herr Kalberer (Mr Calver) is an obstetrician ... Are these the whimsicalities of chance, or the suggestive effects of the name, as Stekel seems to suggest, or are they 'meaningful coincidences'?"
Jung listed striking instances among psychologists — including himself:
- "Herr Freud (Joy) champions the pleasure principle, Herr Adler (Eagle) the will to power, Herr Jung (Young) the idea of rebirth…"
- BBC: "When the name fits the job"
- Noah, Timothy (Dec 16, 2005). "Charol Shakeshaft, Topped!". Slate.
- Splatt, A. J.; Weedon, D. (1977). "The Urethral Syndrome: Experience with the Richardson Urethroplasty". British Journal of Urology 49 (2): 173–176. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1977.tb04095.x. PMID 870138.
- New Scientist, Newscientist.com, Feedback, November 5, 1994
- New Scientist, Newscientist.com, Feedback, April 20, 1996
- Bennett, H. J. (1992-12-02). "A piece of my mind. Calling Dr Doctor". JAMA 268 (21): 3060. doi:10.1001/jama.268.21.3060. PMID 1306061. commented on by Balestra and Hug (below):
- Casler, L. (1975). "Put the Blame on Name". Psychol Rep 36 (2): 467–472. doi:10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.1687.
- Christenfeld, N.; Phillips, D. P.; Glynn, L. M. (September 1999). "What's in a name: Mortality and the power of symbols". J Psychsom Res 47 (3): 241–254. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(99)00035-5. PMID 10576473.
- Cole, C (2001-02-09). "Is work calling your name?". George Street Journal 25.
- Dickson, P. (1996). What's in a name?. Springfield MA.: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-613-0.
- Joubert, CE. (1985). "Factors Related To Individuals Attitudes Toward Their Names". Psychol Rep 57 (3): 983–986. doi:10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1243.
- Luscri, G; Mohr, PB (June 1998). "Surname effects in judgments of mock jurors". Psychol Rep 82 (3): 1023–1026. doi:10.2466/PR0.82.3.1023-1026.
- Michalos, Christina (2009-04-02). "In the Name of the Law". Counsel Magazine - the Journal of the Bar Council: 16–18.
- Murphy, WF (1957). "A Note on the Significance of Names". The Psychoanalytic Quarterly 26: 91–106.
- Nuessel, F (1994). The Study of Names. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-28356-7.
- Slovenko, R (1983). "The Destiny Of A Name". Journal of Psychiatry and Law 11 (2): 227–270.
- Slovenko, R (April 1980). "On naming". Am J Psychother 34 (2): 208–219. PMID 7386692.
- Strumpfer, D. J. W. (1978). "Relationship Between Attitudes Toward Ones Names And Self-Esteem". Psychol Rep 43 (3): 699–702. doi:10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1999.
- Pelham, B.; Mirenberg, Matthew C.; Jones, John T. (2002). "Why Susie sells seashells by the seashore: Implicit egotism and major life decisions". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82 (4): 469–487. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.529. PMID 11999918.