The Ophel (Hebrew: עופל) or Ophlas, meaning fortified hill or risen area, is the biblical name given to a certain part of a settlement or city that is elevated from its surroundings. In the Bible the Ophel refers to the elevation in two cities: the City of David in the Old City of Jerusalem, and at Samaria, the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Israel.
- "Ophel" at Bible Hub: excellent overview, only partially outdated
- History of archaeological investigation 1838-2000
. Does not include important new findings by Eilat Mazar .
- Location of the Ophel: plans, models, some photos
- Lightfoot, John. 2007. From the Talmud and Hebraica, Vol. 1 (reprint). New York, New York: Cosimo. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-60206-406-5
- Freedman, David Noel; editor. 2000. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., p. 990. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5
- Book of Chronicles Chapter 27:3, 33:14
- Book of Kings II, Chapter 5:24