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An oral irrigator (also called a dental water jet) is a home care device that uses a stream of pulsating water to remove plaque and food debris between teeth and below the gumline and improve gingival health.
The first oral irrigator was developed in Fort Collins, Colorado in 1962 by dentist Dr. Gerald Moyer and engineer John Mattingly. Moyer and Mattingly went on to found Aqua Tec, the predecessor of Water Pik, Inc. Since that time, oral irrigators have been evaluated in more than 50 scientific studies. They have been tested and shown effective on people in periodontal maintenance, and those with gingivitis, diabetes, orthodontic appliances, crowns, and implants. A 2008 meta-analysis on whether oral irrigation is beneficial as an adjunct to tooth brushing concluded that "the oral irrigator does not have a beneficial effect in reducing visible plaque" but suggests it may be beneficial to gingival health in addition to regular oral hygiene measures.A study at the University of Southern California found that a 3 second treatment of pulsating water (1,200 pulses per minute) at medium pressure (70 psi) removed 99.9% of plaque biofilm from treated areas.
Non-dental uses exist for some consumers, such as cleaning jewellery.
There is some anecdotal evidence that an oral irrigator is useful in preventing and treating canker sores. Prevention involves pulsing the soft tissues of the mouth (gums, cheeks, etc.). For established canker sores, a low pressure pulse directed at the sore itself shortens its duration.
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- Jahn, CA (2010). "The dental water jet: A historical review of the literature". Journal of dental hygiene 84 (3): 114–20. PMID 20579423.
- http://www.nature.com/ebd/journal/v10/n2/full/6400644a.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19138181
- Gorur, A; Lyle, DM; Schaudinn, C; Costerton, JW (2009). "Biofilm removal with a dental water jet". Compendium of continuing education in dentistry. 30 Spec No 1: 1–6. PMID 19385349.
- Svoboda, Elizabeth (August 31, 2009). "In Tonsils, a Problem the Size of a Pea". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
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