Palimony

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Palimony is the division of financial assets and real property on the termination of a personal live-in relationship wherein the parties are not legally married. The term "palimony" is not a legal or historical term, but rather a colloquial portmanteau of the words pal and alimony coined by celebrity divorce attorney Marvin Mitchelson in 1977 when his client Michelle Triola Marvin filed an unsuccessful suit against the actor Lee Marvin.[1] While the suit was unsuccessful in this instance, the courts found that "in the absence of an express agreement, courts may look to a variety of other remedies to divide property equitably."[2] It is unclear as to how many states currently expressly forbid any kind of palimony to be awarded. That is to say, how many states allow both partners in an unmarried cohabitation, to expressly keep all that is under their own name, including income and property. But it is widely recommended by legal offices across the country that prior to committing to an unmarried but romantic cohabitation, the couple should enter into a legal cohabitation agreement prior to moving in together.[3]

Palimony is present in the following twenty-eight (28) states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington state, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

Background[edit]

Unlike alimony, which is typically provided for by law, palimony is not guaranteed to unmarried partners. There must be a clear agreement, written or oral, by both partners stipulating the extent of financial sharing and/or support in order for palimony to be granted. Palimony cases are determined in civil court as a contract matter, rather than in family court, as in cases of divorce.[4] In the State of New Jersey, palimony cases are tried in Family Court.[citation needed]

In states that recognize palimony, there is variance in the factors that are taken into consideration by the court and the weight that these factors are given:[5]

• Cohabitation • Length of the relationship • Commitment between partners that one would financially provide for the other for life • Promises between partners that can be proven • Written financial agreements • Ability of the plaintiff to support themselves financially • Giving up a career to provide services such as care of the home or children • Sacrifices made by one partner to put the other partner through college • Disparity in income

Oral or implied contracts are often taken into consideration also.

Marvin v. Marvin[edit]

Michelle Triola spent several years living with actor Lee Marvin. After their breakup, she legally adopted the surname Marvin despite never having been married to him, and claimed he had promised to support her for the rest of her life. In the end, in Marvin v. Marvin, the California Supreme Court ruled that Triola had not proven the existence of a contract between herself and Mr. Marvin that gave her an interest in his property. Thus, the common law rule applied to the situation without alteration, and she took away from the relationship and the household what she brought to it.[citation needed]

The Court went on to explain that while the state abolished common law marriage in 1896, California law recognizes non-marital relationship contracts. These contracts may be express or implied, oral or written—but they must be provable in any case. The contract may also provide for a sexual relationship as long as it is not a contract for sexual services. Eventually, the California Court of Appeal ruled that since Michelle Triola and Lee Marvin never had a contract, she was not entitled to any money.[6]

Notable cases[edit]

  • Rock musician Peter Frampton was sued by Penelope J. "Penny" McCall in 1976. McCall asked for half of Frampton’s earnings during the five years that they were together. According to McCall, she gave up her job as a rock promoter and devoted herself full-time to Frampton, right at the time that he achieved superstar status. A New York judge ruled that Frampton and McCall never intended to marry each other and "never held themselves out to the public as husband and wife" and dismissed her complaint on the grounds that to act otherwise would condone adultery. The case set precedent in New York state. [7][8]
  • Tennis player Billie Jean King was sued by Marilyn Barnett in 1981.
  • Tennis player Martina Navratilova was sued by Judy Nelson in 1991.
  • In 1996, Van Cliburn was sued by former partner Thomas Zaremba for a share of his income and assets following a 17-year relationship ending in 1994. Zaremba's palimony case was dismissed for lack of written agreement, along with claims for emotional distress and that Cliburn subjected him to the fear of AIDS through Cliburn's alleged unprotected liaisons with third parties.[9][10]
  • In 2004, comedian Bill Maher was sued for US$9 million by his ex-girlfriend, Nancy "Coco" Johnson.[11][12][13] On May 2, 2005, a California Superior Court judge dismissed the case.[14][15][16]

In popular culture[edit]

Country singer Leon Rausch's song "Palimony" went to #81 on the Billboard Country charts in 1980.

Stuck on You! is a 1982 comedy film follows estranged couple Bill and Carol, who are in a palimony suit against each other.

In the 1996 film The Birdcage, which is adapted from the play La Cage Aux Folles, Albert Goldman (played by Nathan Lane) asks for a palimony agreement from his partner, Armand Goldman (Robin Williams).

Palimony was used as a form of revenge by the Bridgette Wilson character, Chelsea Turner, against her character's boyfriend Seth Winnick (played by French Stewart) in the 1999 film Love Stinks.

Included in the liner notes for Bon Jovi's Slippery When Wet album is a thank you to the group's "expensive lawyers" for helping them to negotiate alimony and palimony payments.

Seeking palimony was an option considered by the lawyer Jane Bingum (Brooke Elliott) during an episode of Drop Dead Diva, where one man married two women. The women ultimately chose to sue their husband for fraud.[episode needed]

States[edit]

Alabama[edit]

No information could be located online in regards to palimony in Alabama.

Alaska[edit]

Alaska recognizes palimony, and has awarded palimony.[17][18][19]

Arizona[edit]

Arizona recognizes palimony, and has awarded palimony.[20] The awarding of palimony in Arizona is "rare" however.[21]

Arkansas[edit]

"Generally unmarried couples are not afforded any rights or protections, unlike married couples, beyond contract law." [22]

California[edit]

California recognizes palimony, and has awarded palimony.[23] California may also award property palimony due to "oral contracts."[24] California has been listed as one of the three most "liberal" palamony laws, in addition to Washington State and Minnesota.[25]

Colorado[edit]

Colorado recognizes palimony.[26][27][28]

Connecticut[edit]

"No right to palimony exists under Connecticut law", unless there is a written contract.[29]

DC[edit]

No relevant information was found online in regards to palimony in DC.

Delaware[edit]

Delaware recognizes palimony, and recognizes oral contracts if no cohabitation agreement is in existence when a cohabitation relationship ends.[30]

Florida[edit]

In Florida, you "cannot sue for support after a non-marital relationship has ended." [31] "Unmarried couples can, however, create their own written agreements regarding support..."[32]

Georgia[edit]

Georgia is one of only three states that does not recognize any form of palimony.[33][34][35] No cases of the awarding of palimony, neither financial or property related, could be found online.

Hawaii[edit]

Hawaii recognizes palimony, and has awarded palimony.[36][37]

Idaho[edit]

The only information in regards to palimony in Idaho was from blogs. According to these, palimony is neither formally legal nor illegal, and may be sued for.[38]

Illinois[edit]

Although Illinois is generally considered to be one of three states to not recognize palimony, that appears to be changing. "The Appellate Court of Illinois has found that a state court judge who is a physician’s former same-sex partner can assert an unjust enrichment legal claim — that is, a palimony claim — to seek compensation for her financial contributions toward both the home they shared and the physician’s professional practice." [39]

Indiana[edit]

'Palimony, per se, is not awarded by Indiana courts."[40] However, Indiana would consider cases with "oral contracts."[41]

Iowa[edit]

Iowa will not recognize palimony unless common-law marriage is proven.[42]

Kansas[edit]

No information on Kansas palimony was found online.

Kentucky[edit]

No information on Kentucky palimony was found online, except for on blogs. According to these, Kentucky "does not recognize palimony claims. Kentucky appellate courts have repeatedly refused to create property rights solely on the basis of unmarried cohabitation, even when the parties' relationship closely resembled marriage. In Glidewell v. Glidewell, 790 S.W.2d 925 (Ky.App. 1990), the Kentucky Court of Appeals held that no property rights arose from a relationship in which the parties held themselves out as husband and wife and filed joint tax returns because none of the states in which the parties lived permitted common-law marriage. In Murphy v. Bowen, 756 S.W.2d 149 (Ky.App. 1988), the same court upheld a trial court's summary judgment against Pearl Murphy, who claimed an interest based solely on evidence of a "meretricious relationship,"" But it is not illegal to file a claim for palimony.[43]

Louisiana[edit]

Louisiana does not recognize palimony law. Only contract law. [44]

Maine[edit]

Maine is one of only three states that does not recognize any form of palimony.[45][46][47] No cases of the awarding of palimony, neither financial or property related, could be found online.

Maryland[edit]

While palimony actions are not permitted in Maryland, Maryland recognizes certain types of palimony-type actions. For example, if evidence that a promise to marry a pregnant individual has been breeched, "damages" may be awarded.[48][49] Also, "oral contracts" may be used to divide property (see previous citation).

Massachusetts[edit]

Massachusetts does not recognize palimony. "No matter what reason causes the end of the relationship, Massachusetts does not recognize any rights for a couple who cohabit without marriage. This means that no property division of separately owned property. No palimony (or alimony). No rights if your partner is hospitalized. If one person in the relationship sacrifices employment to maintain the home or to care for children, there is no compensation for the lost earning capacity. If one partner dies, there is no right to inherit from the estate. Massachusetts does not allow common law marriage so no matter how long a couple live together, cohabitation won't ever change into a marriage without performing a wedding ceremony."[50][51]Historically, some people who separate after long periods of cohabitation have tried to obtain property rights or support by litigation. While palimony is not recognized in Massachusetts, there are some legal theories that may give some limited benefits in this situation. These theories can result in some property rights but only in very limited factual circumstances and only after expensive litigation. A well drafted cohabitation agreement should prevent such litigation. While the Commonwealth of Massachusetts won't create protections for cohabitants, the parties can create their own protections by executing legal documents such as a cohabitation agreement and an estate plan.

Michigan[edit]

While Michigan's official law does not recognize palimony, Michigan has recognized certain types of palimony-like actions. For example, palimony was awarded because the plaintiff worked for the defendant.[52]

Mississippi[edit]

"Palimony is not recognized in Mississippi."[53] Palimony issues are almost non-existent with the exception of joint property ventures and investments.[54]

Minnesota[edit]

In 1980, Minnesota passed two statutes nicknamed the "anti-palimony statutes." These require written contracts in order to award palimony for a cohabiting plaintiff.[55] However, if a cohabitating partner "believes" that they are married, then they are referred to as a "Putative Spouse", which would give them the same rights as a legally married person in a divorce proceeding.[56] Minnesota has been listed as one of the three most "liberal" palamony laws, in addition to Washington State and California.[57]

Missouri[edit]

Missouri does not recognize palimony. However, an ex partner may have other ways to get money or property from an ex-lover. Lawsuits in regards to this are legal, but are "rarely brought." Cohabitation agreements will provide protections in regards to this.[58]

Montana[edit]

No reasonable information in regards to palimony in Montana could be found online, in blogs or otherwise.

Nebraska[edit]

There are no clear references as to Nebraska's acceptance or rejection of palimony awards, but it appears that Nebraska does not recognize palimony unless there is a written agreement. The biggest case regarding palimony is Kinkenon v Hue. The plaintiff was not awarded any part of the home that the defendant built for them prior to the end of the relationship.[59]

Nevada[edit]

Nevada recognizes palimony, and has awarded palimony.[60][61]

New Hampshire[edit]

New Hampshire does not appear to recognize palimony, according to the Joan S. v John S. case.[62] Also with Tapley v Tapley [63]

New Jersey[edit]

New Jersey no longer recognizes palimony rights in relationships started after 2010, since the passage of the Statute of Frauds legislation.[64] However, NJ does recognize palimony with relationships that started prior to 2010 (same reference).

New Mexico[edit]

New Mexico recognizes palimony when an "oral agreement" has been made.[65] New Mexico also recognizes the right to palimony when couples that qualified for common law marriage in another state move to New Mexico. But New Mexico itself does not recognize common law marriage from its own state.[66]

New York[edit]

Obtaining palimony in New York is a "daunting task". Also, "oral contracts that are vague or indefinite will not pass muster."[67] But another legal website states that if there was an "oral agreement," there may still be a case.[68]

North Carolina[edit]

North Carolina will generally enforce "implied contracts" between unmarried couples.[69]

North Dakota[edit]

Very little information in regards to palimony in North Dakota is available online. However, palimony attorneys are located in North Dakota.[70]

Ohio[edit]

"Palimony is not recognized in Ohio." [71] However, Ohio can recognize "implied" cohabitation contracts, resulting in palimony-type awards.[72]

Oklahoma[edit]

No information in regards to palimony in Oklahoma could be found, on blogs or otherwise.

Oregon[edit]

Oregon will look at couples' "oral statements and conduct over time" in order to determine palimony possibilities.[73]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Pennsylvania recognizes palimony, and has awarded palimony [74] Only a "tacit", or implied/oral, agreement is required in order for palimony to be awarded.[75] But another site states that it is "very difficult to get palimony in PA." [76] "Success often means proving the existence of an oral contract." -Quote from a Philadelphia lawyer.[77]

Rhode Island[edit]

Rhode Island supports a type of palimony called "unjust enrichment," where a paramour may lay claim to property that they do not own.[78]

South Carolina[edit]

South Carolina does not grant palimony.[79]

South Dakota[edit]

No information could be located online in regards to palimony in South Dakota.

Tennessee[edit]

Tennessee does not recognize palimony.[80]

Texas[edit]

Texas recognizes palimony. Prior to living together, it is recommended that both parties sign cohabitation agreements in order to avoid palimony.[81]

Utah[edit]

Utah has no palimony laws.[82] However, palimony lawyers do exist in Utah.[83]

Vermont[edit]

No information in regards to Vermont palimony could be found online, except for on blogs. Accordingly, "oral" contracts will be considered during palimony suits.[84]

Virginia[edit]

Virginia does have palimony lawyers.[85]

Washington state[edit]

"Washington courts reserve the power to equitable redistribute property from one unmarried partner to another acquired during a committed intimate relationship." [86] Washington has been listed as one of the three most "liberal" palamony laws, in addition to California and Minnesota.[87]

West Virginia[edit]

Even though "this is not a state where you can award palimony,",[88] cohabitation agreements are encouraged in order to discourage palimony-type lawsuits.[89]

Wisconsin[edit]

Wisconsin recognizes certain types of palimony.[90] "Under Wisconsin law, cohabitants may bring a civil unjust enrichment claim upon termination of the relationship. Watts v. Watts, 137 Wis. 2d 506, 405 N.W.2d 303 (1987); Lawlis v. Thompson, 137 Wis. 2d 490, 405 N.W.2d 317 (1987)."[91] However, "unlike maintenance, where the parties were married, in a cohabitation, performing household services does not give rise to claim for reimbursement. Rather, services must be linked to an accumulation of wealth or assets during the relationship. Waage v. Borer, 188 Wis.2d 324, 525 N.W.2d 96 (Ct. App. 1994). There must be proof of specific contributions that directly led to an increase in assets or accumulation of wealth. Ward v. Jahnke, 220 Wis. 2d 539, 583 N.W.2d.656 (Ct. App. 1998). (previous citation). "Wisconsin does not allow a palimony." (previous citation). a cohabitation lawsuit is a civil case, without standard forms and processes. As a result, if lawyers are needed in a cohabitation case, the cost may be significantly higher, as drafting pleadings is more expensive than simply completing forms. In addition, jury trials may be available, which could significantly increase the costs." (previous citation).

Wyoming[edit]

Wyoming recognizes certain types of palimony.[92]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marvin v. Marvin (1976) 18 C3d 660. Retrieved on 2008-03-01
  2. ^ EL. "Marvin v Marvin". onebriefs.com. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  3. ^ EL. "4 Tips for Avoiding Palimony". Law Offices of.... Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  4. ^ Granat, Richard (2008). "Property Rights of Unmarried Couples in New York". New York Divorce Law. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  5. ^ EL. "Cohabitation...". Divorce360.com. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Laskin, Jared (18 April 2007). "California Palimony Law: An Overview". Law Office of Jared Laskin. Archived from the original on 2006-08-12. Retrieved 2006-10-04. 
  7. ^ "Peter Frampton Leaves Mark on Divorce and Family Law". John K. Grubb & Associates, July 6, 2011. Retrieved 2016-03-29. 
  8. ^ "Live-In Lovers' Quarrel". People, May 07, 1979. Retrieved 2016-03-29. 
  9. ^ Linda Rapp. "Cliburn, Van (b. 1934)". glbtq.com. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  10. ^ "Court grants Pianist's ex-Partner Chance to Amend Suit". AEGiS. National Library of Medicine. August 1997. Retrieved 2008-03-01. 
  11. ^ "Maher: Ex Is Serial Shakedown Artist". The Smoking Gun. November 29, 2004.
  12. ^ "The Fix ". Salon. November 30, 2004.
  13. ^ Keller, Julie (November 30, 2004). "Bill Maher Cries 'Con'". E!.
  14. ^ "Judge Dismisses $9M Lawsuit Against Bill Maher". Fox News/Associated Press. May 4, 2005.
  15. ^ Hagan, Joe (April 9, 2012). “It Won’t Hurt You. It’s Vapor.” New York magazine. p. 6.
  16. ^ "Judge Dismisses $9M Lawsuit Against Bill Maher". Fox News/Associated Press. May 4, 2005.
  17. ^ EL. "Palimony". Divorce Net. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  18. ^ EL. "Enforceable Domestic Partnership...". Divorce Source. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  19. ^ EL. "Levar v Elkins". Court Listener. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  20. ^ EL. "Carroll v Lee". Leagle. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  21. ^ EL. "Palimony". The Carrol Law Firm. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  22. ^ EL. "In the state of Arkansas...". Just Answer. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  23. ^ EL. "Palimony Jury Awards....". LA Times. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  24. ^ EL. "The Truth About....". Minella Law Group. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  25. ^ EL. "Illinois Law Takes "Pal" Out...". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  26. ^ EL. "Broomfield common law...". Warkentine Law Office. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  27. ^ EL. "Defendant in Gay Palimony Suit...". Highbeam.com. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  28. ^ EL. "The Mediation Association..." (PDF). ColoradoMediation. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  29. ^ EL. "Palimony...". LJCT Lawyers. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  30. ^ EL. "Property Division Issues..." (PDF). GLAD. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  31. ^ EL. "Tampa Palimony". Palimony and..... Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  32. ^ EL. "Palimony Cases". Tampa Divorce Attorney. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  33. ^ EL. "Does Georgia...". MtLawOffices... Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  34. ^ EL. "Domestic...". Dobelstein Attorney at Law. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  35. ^ EL. "Couples...". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  36. ^ EL. "Woman Wins Hawaii's First Palimony...". UPI archives. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  37. ^ EL. "Hawaii woman files palimony lawsuit...". The Billarico Project. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  38. ^ EL. "In a nut shell...". JustAnswer.com. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  39. ^ EL. [The Appellate Court of Illinois has found that a state court judge who is a physician’s former same-sex partner can assert an unjust enrichment legal claim — that is, a palimony claim — to seek compensation for her financial contributions toward both the home they shared and the physician’s professional practice. "Lesbian Palimony Claim..."] Check |url= value (help). Gaycitynews.com. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  40. ^ EL. "Cohabitation". Stafford Law Offices. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  41. ^ EL. "What are the Palimony...". Law Guru. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  42. ^ EL. "Palimony". Iowa Family Law Blog. Retrieved 28 December 2015. 
  43. ^ EL. "What is the...?". JustAnswer.com. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  44. ^ EL. "I need to know..". Just Answer. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  45. ^ EL. "Pre-Marriage and...". AATABS and... Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  46. ^ EL. "Maine's Spousal Support...". Rudmanwinchell.com. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  47. ^ EL. "Couples:...". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  48. ^ EL. "Family Law". MD General Assembly. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  49. ^ EL. "Unmarried Cohabitants...". People's Law. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  50. ^ EL. "Boston MA Divorce...". MassFamilyLaw... Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  51. ^ EL. "Common...". MALawForum. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  52. ^ EL. "Palimony Protected". ABC News. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  53. ^ EL. "Courts.MS.GOV" (PDF). In The Court of Appeals. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  54. ^ EL. "Shakin' Up and the Legal...". The Law Office of... Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  55. ^ EL. "Cohabitation Agreements...". The Hennepin Lawyer. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  56. ^ EL. "Divorce in Minnesota". Minnesota Law. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  57. ^ EL. "Illinois Law Takes "Pal" Out...". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  58. ^ EL. "Cohabitation agreements...". PCBLawFirm. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  59. ^ EL. "Kinkenon v Hue". Leagle.com. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  60. ^ EL. "Palimony". Schlesinger and Schlesinger. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  61. ^ EL. "Palimony Claim is a Valid...". Journal of Accountancy. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  62. ^ EL. "Joan S. v John S.". Law.justia.com. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  63. ^ EL. "Tapley v Tapley". Leagle.com. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  64. ^ EL. "Oral Palimony....". Smolin.com. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  65. ^ EL. "Pre and Post Nuptial...". WaltherFamilyLaw. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  66. ^ EL. "No Alimony When...". Collins and Collins. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  67. ^ EL. "Palimony in New York..." (PDF). New York Law Journal. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  68. ^ EL. "New York Palimony Lawyer...". DivorceLawFirmNewYork. Retrieved 30 December 2015. 
  69. ^ EL. "NC Cohabitant Rights". RiceFamilyLaw.com. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  70. ^ EL. "Divorce and Family Law....". Dawson Law Office. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  71. ^ EL. "Palimony Not Recognized...". HCMMLaw.com. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  72. ^ EL. "Toledo Alimony...". Strong Ohio Attorney. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  73. ^ EL. "Oregon Domestic Partner...". DivorceSource.com. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  74. ^ EL. "Mullen v Suchko". Leagle. Retrieved 26 December 2015. 
  75. ^ EL. "Laws Affecting Unmarried...". Ulmer Law. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  76. ^ EL. "Is there palimony...". Law Guru. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  77. ^ EL. "Palimony lawsuits". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  78. ^ EL. "The Rights of Unmarried...". MTLH Law. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  79. ^ EL. "Does South Carolina...?". JustAnswer. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  80. ^ EL. "How long does....". JustAnswer.com. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  81. ^ EL. "Unmarried and Living Together...". ConnatserFamilyLaw. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  82. ^ EL. "Are there palimony...?". Answers.com. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  83. ^ EL. "Family Law...". JLJ Law Group. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  84. ^ EL. "Does the state of Vermont...". Just Answer. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  85. ^ EL. "John P....". Matthews, Snider and Fitzner. Retrieved 5 January 2016. 
  86. ^ EL. "Should You Have a Cohabitation Agreement?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  87. ^ EL. "Illinois Law Takes "Pal" Out...". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  88. ^ EL. "Porter v Porter". courtswv.com. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  89. ^ EL. "Cohabitation Agreement". Attorneys Cafe. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  90. ^ EL. "FamilyLaw...". Divorce Attorneys in Madison WI. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  91. ^ EL. "Family Law...". Wisconsin Law Journal. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  92. ^ EL. "Kinneson v Kinneson". Leagle.com. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 

Further reading[edit]