Pandora (fungus)

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Scientific classification

R. A. Humber, 1989[1]

Pandora athaliae[2]
Pandora bibionis[2]
Pandora blunckii[2]
Pandora borea[2]
Pandora brahminae[2]
Pandora bullata[2]
Pandora cicadellis[2]
Pandora dacnusae[2]
Pandora delphacis[2]
Pandora dipterigena[2]
Pandora echinospora[2]
Pandora formicae[2]
Pandora gammae[2]
Pandora gloeospora[2]
Pandora kondoiensis[2]
Pandora neoaphidis[2]
Pandora nouryi[2]
Pandora phalangicida[2]
Pandora shaanxiensis[2]
Pandora suturalis[2]
Pandora uroleuconii[2]

Pandora is a genus of fungi within the order Entomophthorales of the Zygomycota.

It is best known by its representative Pandora neoaphidis, which acts as an obligate pathogen in various species of aphids. It is a widespread species that is often found to be the most common fungal insect pathogen on the local aphid community (e.g. in surveys from Argentina,[3] Slovakia[4] & China[5]). It has therefore been the subject of study for biological control.

There is limited evidence that the ladybird Harmonia axyridis, which is invasive in America and Europe, has an advantage over native ladybird species because it feeds more on Pandora-infested aphid cadavers.[6]


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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u eol
  3. ^ Scorsetti AC, Humber RA, Garcia JJ, López-LastraCC (2007). "Natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) pests of horticultural crops in Argentina. BioControl". Biocontrol. 52: 641–55.
  4. ^ Barta, Marek; Cagáň, L’udovít (2006). "Observations on the Occurrence of Entomophthorales Infecting Aphids (Aphidoidea) in Slovakia". BioControl. 51 (6): 795–808. doi:10.1007/s10526-006-9007-7. ISSN 1386-6141.
  5. ^ Li, Wei; Sheng, Cheng-Fa (2007). "Occurrence and distribution of entomophthoralean fungi infecting aphids in mainland China". Biocontrol Science and Technology. 17 (4): 433–439. doi:10.1080/09583150701213802. ISSN 0958-3157.
  6. ^ Roy, H. E.; Baverstock, J.; Ware, R. L.; Clark, S. J.; Majerus, M. E. N.; Baverstock, K. E.; Pell, J. K. (2008). "Intraguild predation of the aphid pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis by the invasive coccinellid Harmonia axyridis". Ecological Entomology. 33 (2): 175–182. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2007.00954.x. ISSN 0307-6946.