Papilio joanae

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Ozark swallowtail
Papilio joanae female.jpg
Papilio joanae male.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Tribe: Papilionini
Genus: Papilio
Species: P. joanae
Binomial name
Papilio joanae
J. Heitzman, 1973

Papilio joanae, the Ozark swallowtail, is a North American butterfly species in the family Papilionidae.[1] It was once considered a synonym of the black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes).[2]


The Ozark swallowtail is almost identical to the black swallowtail. Despite this similarity, an analysis of the Ozark swallowtail's mitochondrial DNA suggests that it is actually more closely related to the Old World swallowtail (Papilio machaon). [3] On both surfaces of the hindwing, the pupil in the eyespot usually touches the edge of the inner margin. On the underside of the hindwing, the orange spots have very little or no yellow in them.[1]


This butterfly is endemic to the Ozark Mountains in the United States. It is uncommon to rare in this region.[1]


The Ozark swallowtail is seen from April to September.[3]


P. joanae is found in cedar glades and woodland habitats.[4]

Life cycle[edit]

The caterpillar is morphologically very similar to the black swallowtail caterpillar. The two species may be more easily distinguished by the habitat and host plants upon which the caterpillar feeds, as these differ.[4] There are two broods per year.[3]

Host plants[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Jim P. Brock and Kenn Kaufman (2003). Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin, New York, NY. ISBN 0-618-15312-8
  2. ^ James A. Scott (1986). The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. ISBN 0-8047-2013-4
  3. ^ a b c Jeffrey Glassberg (1999). Butterflies through Binoculars: The East. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. ISBN 0-19-510668-7
  4. ^ a b Thomas J. Allan, Jim P. Brock, and Jeffrey Glassberg (2005). Caterpillars in the Field and Garden. Oxford University Press, New York, NY. ISBN 0-19-518371-1