Parallel society

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Parallel society refers to the self-organization of an ethnic or religious minority, often immigrant groups, with the intent of a reduced or minimal spatial, social and cultural contact with the majority society into which they immigrate.[1]

The term was introduced into the debate about migration and integration in the early 1990s by the German sociologist Wilhelm Heitmeyer.[citation needed] It rose to prominence in the European public discourse following the murder of Dutch director and critic of Islam Theo van Gogh.[citation needed] In 2004, it was elected by the Association for the German Language second as Word of the year.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Parallelgesellschaften?, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, No. 1–2 (2006)