Parnassius delphius

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Banded Apollo
Delphius maximinusCRW 4333.jpg
Parnassius delphius maximinus, male from Kyrgyzstan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Genus: Parnassius
Species: P. delphius
Binomial name
Parnassius delphius
Eversmann, 1843

Parnassius delphius, the banded Apollo, is a high altitude butterfly which is found in Central Asia. It is a member of the genus Parnassius of the swallowtail (Papilionidae) family.


Note: The wing pattern in Parnassius species is inconsistent and the very many subspecies and forms make identification problematic and uncertain. Structural characters derived from the genitalia, wing venation, sphragis and foretibial epiphysis are more, but not entirely reliable. The description given here is a guide only. For an identification key see Ackery P.R. (1975).[1]

Discal markings dull, submarginal band of forewing distinct, hindmarginal spot absent as a rule; ocelli of hindwing bright carmine, hindmarginal spots black, blackish hindmarginal area broad, two bluish-black anal spots, a faint submarginal and narrow marginal band.[2]


Northern Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.


Widely distributed. Locally common, generally rare. Not known to be threatened. Requires further research. Protected by law in India. Featured in erstwhile USSR Red Data Book as vulnerable.

Four subspecies of P. delphius


There are up to 44 subspecies.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ackery P.R. (1975) A guide to the genera and species of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 31, 4 pdf
  2. ^ Stichel in Seitz, 1906 (Parnassius). Die Groß-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Die Groß-Schmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes. Die palaearktischen Tagfalter, Stuttgart.
  3. ^ Funet
  • Collins, N.M., Morris, M.G. (1985) Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. IUCN. ISBN 2-88032-603-6
  • Evans, W.H., (1932) The Identification of Indian Butterflies (2nd Ed), Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India
  • Haribal, Meena., (1992) The Butterflies of Sikkim Himalaya.Sikkim Nature Conservation Foundation, Gangtok
  • Kunte, Krushnamegh (2000) Butterflies of Peninsular India. Universities Press, Hyderabad. ISBN 81-7371-354-5
  • Wynter-Blyth, M.A., (1957) Butterflies of the Indian Region, Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India.
  • Sakai S., Inaoka S., Toshiaki A., Yamaguchi S., Watanabe Y., (2002) The Parnassiology. The Parnassius Butterflies, A Study in Evolution, Kodansha, Japan.
  • Weiss J.-C., (1992) Parnassiinae of the World - Part 2, Sciences Nat, Venette, France.