Pastoral care is an ancient model of emotional and spiritual support that can be found in all cultures and traditions. The term is considered inclusive of distinctly non-religious forms of support as well as those from religious communities.
The term pastoral relates to shepherds and their role caring for sheep. The term was adopted for metaphorical usage historically first by Christians, although many religions and non-religious traditions contain an emphasis on care and social responsibility. The pastoral care movement in the West has since expanded to embrace many different religions and non-religious beliefs.
...Shepherding involves protection, tending to needs, strengthening the weak, encouragement, feeding the flock, making provision, shielding, refreshing, restoring, leading by example to move people on in their pursuit of holiness, comforting, guiding (Pss 78: 52; 23).
Cure of souls
In some denominations of Christianity, the cure of souls (Latin: cura animarum), an archaic translation which is better rendered today as "care of souls" is the exercise by priests of their office. This typically embraces instruction, by sermons, admonitions and administration of sacraments, to the congregation over which they have authority from the church. In countries where the Roman Catholic Church acted as the national church, the "cure" was not only over a congregation or congregations, but over a district. The assignment of a priest to a district subdividing a diocese was a process begun in the 4th century AD. The term parish as applied to this district comes from the Greek word for district, παρоικία.
Humanist and non-religious
Humanist groups, which act on behalf of non-religious people, have developed pastoral care offerings in response to growing demand for the provision of like-minded support from populations undergoing rapid secularisation, such as the UK. Humanists UK for example manages the Non-Religious Pastoral Support Network, a network of trained and accredited volunteers who operate throughout prisons, hospitals, and universities in the UK. The terms pastoral care and pastoral support are preferred because these sound less religious than terms such as chaplaincy. Surveys have shown that more than two thirds of patients support non-religious pastoral care being available in British institutions. Similar offerings are available from humanist groups around Europe and North America.
There are many assumptions about what a pastor's care is. Commonly, a pastor's main job is to preach messages in mainline Protestant churches, but in addition to preaching sermons, pastors are also expected to be involved in local ministries, such as hospital chaplaincy, visitation, funerals, weddings and organizing religious activities. "Pastoral care" is therefore both encouraging their local congregation and bringing new people into the Church. That is not to say that the congregation is not to be involved in both activities, but the pastor should be the leader.
The Evangelical Wesleyan Church, in ¶210 of its 2015 Discipline, instructs clergy with the following words: "We should endeavor to assist those under our care, and to aid in the salvation of souls by instructing them in their homes. ... Family religion is waning in many branches. And what avails public preaching alone, though we could preach like angels? We must, yea, every traveling preacher must instruct the people from house to house."
In Catholic theology, pastoral care for the sick and infirm is one of the most significant ways that members of the Body of Christ continue the ministry and mission of Jesus. Pastoral care is considered to be the responsibility of all the baptized. Understood in the broad sense of "helping others," pastoral care is the responsibility of all Christians. Sacramental pastoral care is the administration of the sacraments (Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, Matrimony) that is reserved to consecrated priests except for Baptism (in an emergency, anyone can baptize) and marriage, where the spouses are the ministers and the priest is the witness. Pastoral care was understood differently at different times in history. A significant development occurred after the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 (more on this in the link to Father Boyle's lecture below). The Second Vatican Council (Vatican II) applied the word "pastoral" to a variety of situations involving care of souls; on this point, go to the link to Monsignor Gherardini's lecture).
Many Catholic parishes employ lay ecclesial ministers as "pastoral associates" or "pastoral assistants", lay people who serve in ministerial or administrative roles, assisting the pastor in his work, but who are not ordained clerics. They are responsible, among other things, for the spiritual care of frail and housebound as well as for running a multitude of tasks associated with the sacramental life of the Church. If priests have the necessary qualifications in counseling or in psychotherapy, they may offer professional psychological services when they give pastoral counseling as part of their pastoral care of souls. However, the church hierarchy under John Paul II and Benedict XVI has emphasized that the Sacrament of Penance, or Reconciliation, is for the forgiveness of sins and not counseling and as such should not be confused with or incorporated into the therapy given to a person by a priest, even if the therapist priest is also their confessor. The two processes, both of which are privileged and confidential under civil and canon law, are separate by nature.
Youth workers and youth ministers are also finding a place within parishes, and this involves their spirituality. It is common for Youth workers/ministers to be involved in pastoral care and are required to have a qualification in counseling before entering into this arm of ministry.
The pastoral obligations of Orthodox clergymen are outlined by John Chrysostom (347–407) in his treatise On the Priesthood. It is perhaps the first really great pastoral work ever written, although he was only a deacon when he penned it. It stresses the dignity of the priesthood. The priest, it says, is greater than kings, angels, or parents, but priests are for that reason most tempted to pride and ambition. They, more than anyone else, need clear and unshakable wisdom, patience that disarms pride, and exceptional prudence in dealing with souls.
"University of Canberra, Multi-faith Centre". Archived from the original on 2013-06-21.
Historically Christian but is now a multi faith community.
- Hélène Mulholland (25 October 2017). "Jane Flint: 'Having an atheist chaplain is about patient choice'". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- "NHS Chaplaincy Guidelines 2015" (PDF). NHS England. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- Savage, David (2018). "3: Public perceptions of chaplains and non-religious pastoral carers 4:Religious and non-religious beliefs in society". Non-Religious Pastoral Care: A Practical Guide. Routledge. pp. 34–56. ISBN 9781351264464. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Ephesians 4:10–12". Retrieved 2008-12-09.
- Rowdon, Harold. Church Leaders Hand Book. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-900128-23-3.
- "Humanist Pastoral Support". Humanists UK. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- The Discipline of the Evangelical Wesleyan Church. Evangelical Wesleyan Church. 2015. p. 108.
- Arnold, Bruce Makoto, "Shepherding a Flock of a Different Fleece: A Historical and Social Analysis of the Unique Attributes of the African American Pastoral Caregiver”. The Journal of Pastoral Care and Counseling, Vol. 66, No. 2. (June 2012) 
- Multi-faith Centre, University of Canberra, 2013, https://web.archive.org/web/20130621155552/http://www.canberra.edu.au/multifaith-centre/pastoral-care/pastoral-worker - this link is broken 06/01/2018
- Henri Nouwen, Spiritual Direction (San Francisco, HarperOne, 2006).
- Emmanuel Yartekwei Lartey, Pastoral Theology in an Intercultural World (Cleveland, (OH), Pilgrim Press, 2006).
- Neil Pembroke, Renewing Pastoral Practice: Trinitarian Perspectives on Pastoral Care and Counselling (Ashgate, Aldershot, 2006) (Explorations in Practical, Pastoral and Empirical Theology).
- Beth Allison Barr, The Pastoral Care of Women in Late Medieval England (Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2008) (Gender in the Middle Ages, 3).
- George R. Ross, Evaluating Models of Christian Counseling (Eugene (OR), Wipf and Stock, 2011).
- St. Thomas Aquinas and the Third Millennium, by Leonard Boyle.
- The Pastoral Nature of Vatican II: An Evaluation, by Brunero Gherardini. Translation of: Sull'indole pastorale del Vaticano II: una valutazione in Concilio Vaticano II, un concilio pastorale (Frigento, Italy: Casa Mariana Editrice, 2011).