Peripheral vascular system

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Image of a wrist with peripheral veins visible

The peripheral vascular system is the part of the circulatory system that consists of the veins and arteries not in the chest or abdomen (i.e. in the arms, hands, legs and feet).[1][2] The peripheral arteries supply oxygenated blood to the body, and the peripheral veins lead deoxygenated blood from the capillaries in the extremities back to the heart.[3]

Peripheral veins are the most common intravenous access method in both hospitals and paramedic services for a peripheral intravenous (IV) line for intravenous therapy.[4][5][6]

In some cases blockages in the peripheral arteries may be treated with catheterization and balloon dilatation instead of surgery.[7][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "What Is Peripheral Vascular Disease?" (PDF). American Heart Association ( 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2015. Retrieved February 26, 2015. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the narrowing of the arteries to the legs, stomach, arms and head.
  2. ^ "Overview of Peripheral Arterial Disease - Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved April 30, 2019. Disorders of arteries that supply the brain with blood are considered separately as cerebrovascular disease. Disorders that reduce blood flow of arteries in the abdomen are considered separately as abdominal aortic branch occlusion.
  3. ^ Hochauf, Sandra; Sternitzky, Reinhardt; Schellong, Sebastian M. (2007). "Struktur und Funktion des venösen Systems". Herz (in German). Springer Nature. 32 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1007/s00059-007-2951-x. ISSN 0340-9937. PMID 17323029.
  4. ^ Malenfant, Jason; Bubb, Kathleen; Wade, Alena; Tubbs, R. Shane; Loukas, Marios (2012). "Vascular Anatomy of Central and Peripheral Veins". Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices. Milano: Springer Milan. pp. 11–17. doi:10.1007/978-88-470-2373-4_2. ISBN 978-88-470-2372-7.
  5. ^ "peripheral venous catheter". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  6. ^ Lamperti, M.; Pittiruti, M. (June 1, 2013). "II. Difficult peripheral veins: turn on the lights". BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia. 110 (6): 888–891. doi:10.1093/bja/aet078. ISSN 0007-0912. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  7. ^ Lee, G; Ikeda, R M; Joye, J A; Bogren, H G; DeMaria, A N; Mason, D T (1980). "Evaluation of transluminal angioplasty of chronic coronary artery stenosis. Value and limitations assessed in fresh human cadaver hearts". Circulation. Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). 61 (1): 77–83. doi:10.1161/01.cir.61.1.77. ISSN 0009-7322.
  8. ^ Krajcer, Z; Howell, MH (2000). "Update on Endovascular Treatment of Peripheral Vascular Disease: New Tools, Techniques, and Indications". Texas Heart Institute Journal. 27 (4): 369–385. PMC 101107. PMID 11198311.