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Petronius is a Roman nomen shared by several notables:
- Gaius Petronius, governor of Aegyptus c. 25-21 BC
- Publius Petronius, suffect consul 19 AD
- Publius Petronius, Legate of Syria 37-41 AD, possibly same as above
- Gaius Petronius Pontius Nigrinus, consul 37 AD
- Publius Petronius Turpilianus, consul 61 AD, Governor of Britain AD 61-63, son of Publius?
- Gaius Petronius Arbiter AD 27-66 Roman courtier, author of Satryricon, friend of emperor Nero
- Marcus Petronius Mamertinus, suffect consul of 150
- Marcus Petronius Sura Mamertinus, son to the above, consul in 182
- Quintus Petronius Didius Severus, father of empreror Didius Julianus
- Petronius Antoninus, son of Sura Mamertinus
- Marcus Petronius Sura Septimianus, brother to Sura Mamertinus, consul in 190
- Petronia, sister to the above, married the Roman Senator Marcus Antoninus Antius Lupus
- Lucius Fulvius Gavius (Numisius?) Petronius Aemilianus, consul 206
- Lucius Petronius Taurus Volusianus, Consul of 261, Praefectus Urbi, Praetorian Prefect to the emperor Gallieus
- Petronius Annianus, consul 314
- Petronius Probianus, consul 322
- Petronius Probinus, consul 341
- Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus, consul 371
- Anicius Petronius Probus, consul 406
- Saint Petronius, bishop of Bologna, 5th century
- Petronius Maximus, western emperor 455 for 14 days, torn apart by his subjects.
- Petronius Probinus, consul 489
- Rufius Petronius Nicomachus Cethegus, consul 504
- Petronius (centurion), the centurion guarding the tomb of Jesus in the non-canonical Gospel of Peter
- Peter I of Trani (fl. 11th century), called "Petroniuis" in contemporary sources
- Petronius Paperonius, Donald Duck's ancestor, in comics
- Petronius (oil platform), oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico
- Petronius the Arbiter, the protagonist's cat 'Pete' in Robert A. Heinlein's The Door into Summer
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