Born in Saint-Sébastien-d'Iberville, Quebec, Desranleau studied at the Séminaire de Saint-Hyacinthe and the Grand Séminaire de Montréal. He was ordained as a priest in 1909. In 1937, he was appointed Titular Bishop of Sala and a Coadjutor Bishop of Sherbrooke. He was appointed Bishop of Sherbrooke in 1941 and was made the first Archbishop in 1951. He served until his death in 1952.