From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A phytosome is a complex of a natural active ingredient and a phospholipid. The most common example of a phytosome is lecithin.[1]

It is claimed that phytosome increases absorption of "conventional herbal extracts" or isolated active principles both topically[2] as well as orally.[3]

Complexation with phospholipids has been applied to a number of popular herbal extracts and active molecules including Ginkgo biloba extract,[4] bilobalide isolated from Ginkgo biloba,[5] silybin isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum),[6] curcumin isolated from turmeric,[7] and green tea extract (Camellia sinensis).[8]

An attempt to trademark the term in the USA failed on appeal. Legal analysis in the USA held "...Applicant's fatal error, according to the Board, was in using the term as the sole designation for its new product."[9] At least one dictionary has defined it as "a new term cosmetologists are using for the combination of liposomes ... and plant extracts."[citation needed]

Nevertheless, Phytosome - along with Meriva - is a registered trademark of Indena S.p.A. in major countries.[10]


  1. ^ "Phytosome" (PDF).
  2. ^ Bombardelli E. (1991). "Phytosome: new cosmetic delivery system". Boll Chim Farm. 130 (11): 431–8. PMID 1809296.
  3. ^ Indena's Phytosome official site
  4. ^ Morazzoni P, Montalbetti A, Malandrino S, Pifferi G (2001). "Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of terpene lactones in plasma of volunteers dosed with Ginkgo biloba L. extracts". Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 15 (12): 929–934. Bibcode:2001RCMS...15..929M. doi:10.1002/rcm.316. PMID 11400198.
  5. ^ Rossi R, Basilico F, Rossoni G, Riva A, Morazzoni P, Mauri PL (2009). "Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry of bilobalide in plasma and brain of rats after oral administration of its phospholipidic complex". J Pharm Biomed Anal. 50 (2): 224–227. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2009.04.026. PMID 19473802.
  6. ^ Morazzoni P, Montalbetti A, Malandrino S, Pifferi G (1993). "Comparative pharmacokinetics of silipide and silymarin in rats". Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. Jul–Sep (18): 289–297. doi:10.1007/BF03188811. PMID 8149949. S2CID 6763929.
  7. ^ Marczylo TH, Verschoyle RD, Cooke DN, Morazzoni P, Steward WP, Gescher AJ (2007). "Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine". Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 60 (2): 171–7. doi:10.1007/s00280-006-0355-x. hdl:2381/511. PMID 17051370. S2CID 27842833.
  8. ^ Pietta P, Simonetti P, Gardana C, Brusamolino A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E (1998). "Relationship between rate and extent of catechin absorption and plasma antioxidant status". Biochem Mol Biol Int. 46 (5): 895–903. doi:10.1080/15216549800204442. PMID 9861443.
  9. ^ John L. Welch, The Top Ten Losing TTAB Arguments (PDF), p. 14, archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2009,
  10. ^ "Trade mark name Contains: Phytosome". TMView. Retrieved 28 September 2022.