Phytosome

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A phytosome is a complex of a natural active ingredient and a phospholipid.

It is claimed that phytosome increases absorption of "conventional herbal extracts" or isolated active principles both topically[1] as well as orally.[2]

The complexation with phospholipid has been applied to many popular herbal extract or active molecules including Ginkgo biloba extract,[3] bilobalide[4] isolated from Ginkgo biloba, silybin[5] isolated from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), curcumin[6] isolated from turmeric, and green tea extract[7] (Camellia sinensis).

An attempt to trademark the term in the USA failed on appeal.[8] Legal analysis in the USA held "...Applicant's fatal error, according to the Board, was in using the term as the sole designation for its new product."[8] At least one dictionary has defined it as "a new term cosmetologists are using for the combination of liposomes ... and plant extracts."[citation needed]

Nevertheless, Phytosome is a registered trademark of Indena S.p.A. in most of the world.[citation needed]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Bombardelli E. (1991). "Phytosome: new cosmetic delivery system". Boll Chim Farm. 130 (11): 431–8. PMID 1809296. 
  2. ^ Indena's Phytosome official site
  3. ^ Morazzoni P, Montalbetti A, Malandrino S, Pifferi G (2001). "Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry of terpene lactones in plasma of volunteers dosed with Ginkgo biloba L. extracts". Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 15 (15): 929–934. PMID 11400198. doi:10.1002/rcm.316. 
  4. ^ Rossi R, Basilico F, Rossoni G, Riva A, Morazzoni P, Mauri PL (2009). "Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry of bilobalide in plasma and brain of rats after oral administration of its phospholipidic complex". J Pharm Biomed Anal. 50 (2): 224–227. PMID 19473802. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2009.04.026. 
  5. ^ Morazzoni P, Montalbetti A, Malandrino S, Pifferi G (1993). "Comparative pharmacokinetics of silipide and silymarin in rats". Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. Jul-Sep (18): 289–297. 
  6. ^ Marczylo TH, Verschoyle RD, Cooke DN, Morazzoni P, Steward WP, Gescher AJ (2007). "Comparison of systemic availability of curcumin with that of curcumin formulated with phosphatidylcholine". Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 60 (2): 171–7. PMID 17051370. doi:10.1007/s00280-006-0355-x. 
  7. ^ Pietta P, Simonetti P, Gardana C, Brusamolino A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E (1998). "Relationship between rate and extent of catechin absorption and plasma antioxidant status". Biochem Mol Biol Int. 46 (5): 895–903. PMID 9861443. doi:10.1080/15216549800204442. 
  8. ^ a b http://www.ll-a.com/welch/top10LosingTTABfinalSEP2001.pdf