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Pleograph (Polish: Pleograf) was an early type of movie camera constructed in 1894, before those made by the Lumière brothers, by Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński. Prószyński later constructed the first hand held camera called an Aeroscope, the first compressed air camera, that could be hand-held.
Similarly to the Lumière brothers cinematograph, Prószyński's pleograph has been also a projector. The apparatus used a rectangle of celluloid with perforation between several parallel rows of images. Using improved pleograph Prószyński shot first short films showing scenes from the life of Warsaw like people skating on in the park ("Ślizgawka w Ogrodzie Saskim" - 1902).
The name camera in its Polish spelling - Pleograf has been taken by the first Polish film studio established in Warsaw in 1901.
- Alfred Liebfeld "Polacy na szlakach techniki" WKŁ, Warszawa 1966
- Maciej Iłowiecki, "Dzieje nauki polskiej", Wydawnictwo Interpress, Warszawa 1981, ISBN 8322318766, p.202 (Polish).
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