ProP (transporter)

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Proline/betaine transporter
Organism Escherichia coli
Symbol ProP
PDB 1R48
UniProt P0C0L7

ProP is a bacterial membrane protein that is a member of the major facilitator superfamily. It functions as an osmosensory and osmoregulatory transporter, responding to changes in osmotic pressure by importing compatible solutes such as proline or glycine betaine;[1] most substrates for ProP are zwitterions.[2] The activity of ProP increases with osmotic pressure in cells and proteoliposomes.[3][4] ProP is a symporter of hydrogen ions and compatible solutes, and is responsive to potassium concentrations.[2]

Activity of ProP has been associated with the ability of pathogenic E. coli to colonize the urinary tract.[3]


  1. ^ Culham, DE; Lasby, B; Marangoni, AG; Milner, JL; Steer, BA; van Nues, RW; Wood, JM (5 January 1993). "Isolation and sequencing of Escherichia coli gene proP reveals unusual structural features of the osmoregulatory proline/betaine transporter, ProP.". Journal of Molecular Biology. 229 (1): 268–76. PMID 8421314. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1030. 
  2. ^ a b MacMillan, SV; Alexander, DA; Culham, DE; Kunte, HJ; Marshall, EV; Rochon, D; Wood, JM (20 August 1999). "The ion coupling and organic substrate specificities of osmoregulatory transporter ProP in Escherichia coli.". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1420 (1–2): 30–44. PMID 10446288. doi:10.1016/s0005-2736(99)00085-1. 
  3. ^ a b Culham, DE; Dalgado, C; Gyles, CL; Mamelak, D; MacLellan, S; Wood, JM (Jan 1998). "Osmoregulatory transporter ProP influences colonization of the urinary tract by Escherichia coli.". Microbiology. 144 (1): 91–102. PMID 9467901. doi:10.1099/00221287-144-1-91. 
  4. ^ Racher, KI; Voegele, RT; Marshall, EV; Culham, DE; Wood, JM; Jung, H; Bacon, M; Cairns, MT; Ferguson, SM; Liang, WJ; Henderson, PJ; White, G; Hallett, FR (9 February 1999). "Purification and reconstitution of an osmosensor: transporter ProP of Escherichia coli senses and responds to osmotic shifts.". Biochemistry. 38 (6): 1676–84. PMID 10026245. doi:10.1021/bi981279n.