In ancient Greece and during the Byzantine era, the Promachoi (singular: Promachos; Greek: πρόμαχος) were the men fighting in the first rank of the phalanx. The word can also be used as an adjective as in "promachos line" referring to the first line of battle. It may also refer to Athena Promachos, the famous bronze statue by Phidias that towered over the Parthenon.
- Perseus Project - Greek Word Study Tool (πρόμαχος).
- Sylloge Tacticorum, 45.15
- Leo VI. Tactica, 12.43
- Homer Iliad, Ξ.82