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Temporal range: Miocene
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Protoceratidae
Genus: Prosynthetoceras
Patton (1967)
  • P. francisi
  • P. orthrionanus
  • P. texanus
Prosynthetoceras range.png
Range of Prosynthetoceras based on fossil record

Prosynthetoceras is an extinct genus of Artiodactyla, of the family Protoceratidae, endemic to North America from the early Miocene epoch (Hemingfordian to Barstovian stages) 20.6—13.6 Ma, existing for approximately 7 million years.[1]


Prosynthetoceras was named by Patton (1967) [named as subgenus of Synthetoceras by Frick 1937; raised to genus level (?)]. It is not extant. It was assigned to Protoceratidae by Patton (1967) and Carroll (1988); and to Synthetoceratini by Webb (1981), Prothero (1998), Webb et al. (2003) and Prothero and Ludtke (2007).[2][3][4][5]


In appearance, Prosynthetoceras looked much like Syndyoceras, Kyptoceras, and Synthetoceras with rostral or snout horns and cranial horns above the orbital sockets.

Body mass[edit]

Four fossil specimens of Prosynthetoceras were measured by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass.[6]

  • Specimen 1: 95.5 kg (210 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 88.2 kg (190 lb)
  • Specimen 3: 108.2 kg (240 lb)
  • Specimen 4: 78.9 kg (170 lb)


  1. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Prosynthetoceras, basic info
  2. ^ T. H. Patton. 1967. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(3)
  3. ^ R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York 1-698
  4. ^ S. D. Webb, B. L. Beatty, and G. Poinar, Jr. 2003. New evidence of Miocene Protoceratidae including a new species from Chiapas, Mexico. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 279:348-367
  5. ^ D. R. Prothero and J. A. Ludtke. 2007. Family Protoceratidae. in D. R. Prothero and S. Foss (eds.), The Evolution of Artiodactyls 169-176
  6. ^ M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist. 2006. Estimating the body mass of extinct ungulates: a study on the use of multiple regression. Journal of Zoology 270(1):90-101