GLS2

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GLS2
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases GLS2, GA, GLS, LGA, hLGA, glutaminase 2
External IDs MGI: 2143539 HomoloGene: 40861 GeneCards: GLS2
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001280796
NM_001280797
NM_001280798
NM_013267
NM_138566

NM_001033264
NM_001285777
NM_001285779

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001267725
NP_001267726
NP_001267727
NP_037399

NP_001028436
NP_001272706
NP_001272708

Location (UCSC) Chr 12: 56.47 – 56.49 Mb Chr 10: 128.19 – 128.21 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLS2 gene.[3]

Structure[edit]

The GLS2 gene is on the 12th chromosome in humans, with its specific location being 12q13.3. It contains 19 exons.[3]

Function[edit]

GLS2 is a part of the glutaminase family. The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to stoichiometric amounts of glutamate and ammonia. Originally thought to be liver-specific, this protein has been found in other tissues as well. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms.

Clinical significance[edit]

GLS2 has interesting molecular relationships with tumor progression and cancer. Glutaminase 2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling and shows tumor suppression activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma.[4] Additionally, silencing of GLS and overexpression of GLS2 genes cooperate in decreasing the proliferation and viability of glioblastoma cells.[5]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Suhre K, Shin SY, Petersen AK, Mohney RP, Meredith D, Wägele B, Altmaier E, Deloukas P, Erdmann J, Grundberg E, Hammond CJ, de Angelis MH, Kastenmüller G, Köttgen A, Kronenberg F, Mangino M, Meisinger C, Meitinger T, Mewes HW, Milburn MV, Prehn C, Raffler J, Ried JS, Römisch-Margl W, Samani NJ, Small KS, Wichmann HE, Zhai G, Illig T, Spector TD, Adamski J, Soranzo N, Gieger C (Sep 2011). "Human metabolic individuality in biomedical and pharmaceutical research". Nature. 477 (7362): 54–60. PMID 21886157. doi:10.1038/nature10354. 
  • Xiang L, Xie G, Liu C, Zhou J, Chen J, Yu S, Li J, Pang X, Shi H, Liang H (Dec 2013). "Knock-down of glutaminase 2 expression decreases glutathione, NADH, and sensitizes cervical cancer to ionizing radiation". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1833 (12): 2996–3005. PMID 23954443. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2013.08.003. 
  • Hu W, Zhang C, Wu R, Sun Y, Levine A, Feng Z (Apr 2010). "Glutaminase 2, a novel p53 target gene regulating energy metabolism and antioxidant function". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (16): 7455–60. PMC 2867677Freely accessible. PMID 20378837. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001006107. 
  • Olalla L, Gutiérrez A, Campos JA, Khan ZU, Alonso FJ, Segura JA, Márquez J, Aledo JC (Oct 2002). "Nuclear localization of L-type glutaminase in mammalian brain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (41): 38939–44. PMID 12163477. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200373200. 
  • Cheng CY, Schache M, Ikram MK, Young TL, Guggenheim JA, Vitart V, MacGregor S, Verhoeven VJ, Barathi VA, Liao J, Hysi PG, Bailey-Wilson JE, St Pourcain B, Kemp JP, McMahon G, Timpson NJ, Evans DM, Montgomery GW, Mishra A, Wang YX, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Polasek O, Wright AF, Amin N, van Leeuwen EM, Wilson JF, Pennell CE, van Duijn CM, de Jong PT, Vingerling JR, Zhou X, Chen P, Li R, Tay WT, Zheng Y, Chew M, Burdon KP, Craig JE, Iyengar SK, Igo RP, Lass JH, Chew EY, Haller T, Mihailov E, Metspalu A, Wedenoja J, Simpson CL, Wojciechowski R, Höhn R, Mirshahi A, Zeller T, Pfeiffer N, Lackner KJ, Bettecken T, Meitinger T, Oexle K, Pirastu M, Portas L, Nag A, Williams KM, Yonova-Doing E, Klein R, Klein BE, Hosseini SM, Paterson AD, Makela KM, Lehtimaki T, Kahonen M, Raitakari O, Yoshimura N, Matsuda F, Chen LJ, Pang CP, Yip SP, Yap MK, Meguro A, Mizuki N, Inoko H, Foster PJ, Zhao JH, Vithana E, Tai ES, Fan Q, Xu L, Campbell H, Fleck B, Rudan I, Aung T, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, Bencic G, Khor CC, Forward H, Pärssinen O, Mitchell P, Rivadeneira F, Hewitt AW, Williams C, Oostra BA, Teo YY, Hammond CJ, Stambolian D, Mackey DA, Klaver CC, Wong TY, Saw SM, Baird PN (Aug 2013). "Nine loci for ocular axial length identified through genome-wide association studies, including shared loci with refractive error". American Journal of Human Genetics. 93 (2): 264–77. PMC 3772747Freely accessible. PMID 24144296. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.06.016. 
  • Maeshima H, Ohnuma T, Sakai Y, Shibata N, Baba H, Ihara H, Higashi M, Ohkubo T, Nozawa E, Abe S, Ichikawa A, Nakano Y, Utsumi Y, Suzuki T, Arai H (Oct 2007). "Increased plasma glutamate by antipsychotic medication and its relationship to glutaminase 1 and 2 genotypes in schizophrenia -- Juntendo University Schizophrenia Projects (JUSP)". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 31 (7): 1410–8. PMID 17669570. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2007.06.009. 
  • Kettunen J, Tukiainen T, Sarin AP, Ortega-Alonso A, Tikkanen E, Lyytikäinen LP, Kangas AJ, Soininen P, Würtz P, Silander K, Dick DM, Rose RJ, Savolainen MJ, Viikari J, Kähönen M, Lehtimäki T, Pietiläinen KH, Inouye M, McCarthy MI, Jula A, Eriksson J, Raitakari OT, Salomaa V, Kaprio J, Järvelin MR, Peltonen L, Perola M, Freimer NB, Ala-Korpela M, Palotie A, Ripatti S (Mar 2012). "Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci influencing human serum metabolite levels". Nature Genetics. 44 (3): 269–76. PMC 3605033Freely accessible. PMID 22286219. doi:10.1038/ng.1073. 
  • Szeliga M, Zgrzywa A, Obara-Michlewska M, Albrecht J (Nov 2012). "Transfection of a human glioblastoma cell line with liver-type glutaminase (LGA) down-regulates the expression of DNA-repair gene MGMT and sensitizes the cells to alkylating agents". Journal of Neurochemistry. 123 (3): 428–36. PMID 22888977. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07917.x. 
  • Pérez-Gómez C, Campos-Sandoval JA, Alonso FJ, Segura JA, Manzanares E, Ruiz-Sánchez P, González ME, Márquez J, Matés JM (Mar 2005). "Co-expression of glutaminase K and L isoenzymes in human tumour cells". The Biochemical Journal. 386 (Pt 3): 535–42. PMC 1134872Freely accessible. PMID 15496140. doi:10.1042/BJ20040996. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.