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Psammophory is a method by which certain plants armor themselves with sand on their body parts, lowering the chance of them being eaten by animals. Over 200 species of plants hailing from 88 genera in 34 families have been identified as psammorphorous.[1]

The term was first proposed in 1989 by scientists studying the habits of the beetle Georissus which actively covers its elytra with sand or mud particles.[2]


  1. ^ "Sand Armor". Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  2. ^ Bameul, Franck (1989-01-01). "Description of the camouflage behaviour of a Coleoptera: The active disguise of Georissus crenulatus (Coleoptera Georissidae), and proposal of a new classification of disguises among invertebrates". 309: 351–356. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)