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Pyrgulopsis nevadensis shell.jpg
Apertural view of a shell of †Pyrgulopsis nevadensis.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda

clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Littorinimorpha

Superfamily: Rissooidea
Family: Hydrobiidae
Subfamily: Nymphophilinae
Genus: Pyrgulopsis
Call & Pilsbry, 1886[1]
133 species

Pyrgulopsis is a genus of freshwater snails with a gill and an operculum, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Hydrobiidae.


The name Pyrgulopsis is composed from Pyrgula and opsis = aspect of.[1]

Shell description[edit]

Generic characters of the genus Pyrgulopsis are: the shell is minute, conically turreted, somewhat elongated, imperforate and unicarinate. The apex is acute. The aperture is ovate. The peritreme is continuous.[1]

The operculum is ovate, thin, corneous and spiral, with polar point well forward and approximating the columella.[1]


The jaw is thin and membranaceous.[1]

The radula is like this: Odontophore with teeth are arranged in transverse rows, according to the formula 3 + 1 + 3. Formula for denticles of rhachidian:[1]

4 + 1 + 41 + 1.


The distribution of the genus Pyrgulopsis includes Western and South-western United States.[1]


Snails of species in the genus Pyrgulopsis occur in fresh water and in brackish water.[1]


Pyrgulopsis is the largest genus of freshwater gastropods in the North America. In 2010, 133 species were recognized in this genus.[2][3]

Species in the genus Pyrgulopsis include:[4]

Eastern North American species of Pyrgulopsis[9] are considered to be in separate genus Marstonia according to the Thompson and Hershler (2002).[10]


This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[1]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Call R. E. & Pilsbry H. A. (1886). "On Pyrgulopsis, a new genus of rissoid mollusk, with description of two new forms". Proceeding Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences V.: 9-14.
  2. ^ a b c d Hershler R. Liu H.-P. (25 January 2010). "Two new, possibly threatened species of Pyrgulopsis (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from southwestern California". Zootaxa 2343: 1–17, 8 plates. preview
  3. ^ a b c d Hershler R., Liu H.-P. & Lang B. K. (2010). "Transfer of Cochliopa texana to Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae) and description of a third congener from the lower Pecos River basin". Journal of Molluscan Studies 76(3): 245-256. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyq002.
  4. ^ Pyrgulopsis, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, accessed 24 July 2009.
  5. ^ Hershler R. & Gustafson D. L. (2001). "First record for springsnails (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae: Pyrgulopsis) from the northern Rocky Mountains". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (2001) 114: 297–308. [1]
  6. ^ Herschler R., Liu H.-P., & Gustafson D. L. (10 September 2008). "A second species of Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae) from the Missouri River basin, with molecular evidence supporting faunal origin through Pliocene stream capture across the northern continental divide". Journal Molluscan Studies 74: 403-413; doi:10.1093/mollus/eyn028.
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ Hershler R. (1994). "A review of the North American freshwater snail genus Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae)". Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 554: 1-115. PDF.
  10. ^ Marstonia accessed 25 July 2009. (See "Concept References" in each Marstonia species.)

Further reading[edit]

  • Hershler R. (1998). "A systematic review of the hydrobiid snails (Gastropoda: Rissoidea) of the Great Basin, western United States. Part I. Genus Pyrgulopsis". The Veliger 41(1): 1-132.
  • Hershler R. & Thompson F. G. (1987). "North American Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda: Rissoacea): redescription and the systematic relationships of Tryonia Stimpson, 1865 and Pyrgulopsis Call and Pilsbry, 1886". The Nautilus 101(1): 25-32.
  • Thompson F. G. & Hershler R. (2002). "Two genera of North American freshwater snails: Marstonia Baker, 1926, resurrected to generic status, and Floridobia, new genus (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae: Nymphophilinae)". The Veliger 45(3): 269-271.

External links[edit]