RS-1 can refer to:
- ALCO RS-1, a 4-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by Alco-GE and later by Alco alone.
- K-5 (missile), also known as RS-1U or product ShM, an early Soviet air-to-air missile.
- The Reid and Sigrist R.S.1, a British twin-engined, three-seat advanced trainer developed during World War II.
- Retinoschisin, a protein that in humans is encoded by the RS1 gene.
- Ross RS-1 Zanonia, a single seat, gull-winged glider.
- RS-1, an Indian satellite in the Rohini (satellite) series.
- (7080) 1986 RS1, generally written as (7080) 1986 RS1, a main-belt minor planet.
- Sikorsky S-41, an amphibious flying boat airliner designated by the U.S. Navy as RS-1.
- Stadler Regio-Shuttle RS1, a diesel railcar manufactured by Stadler Rail AG.
- Goodyear RS-1 America's first semi-rigid airship.
- RS/1, statistical software from Bolt, Beranek and Newman
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