# Ramanujan–Nagell equation

(Redirected from Ramanujan-Nagell equation)

In mathematics, in the field of number theory, the Ramanujan–Nagell equation is an equation between a square number and a number that is seven less than a power of two. It is an example of an exponential Diophantine equation, an equation to be solved in integers where one of the variables appears as an exponent. It is named after Srinivasa Ramanujan, who conjectured that it has only five integer solutions, and after Trygve Nagell, who proved the conjecture.

## Equation and solution

The equation is

${\displaystyle 2^{n}-7=x^{2}\,}$

and solutions in natural numbers n and x exist just when n = 3, 4, 5, 7 and 15.

This was conjectured in 1913 by Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, proposed independently in 1943 by the Norwegian mathematician Wilhelm Ljunggren, and proved in 1948 by the Norwegian mathematician Trygve Nagell. The values of n correspond to the values of x as:-

x = 1, 3, 5, 11 and 181.[1]

## Triangular Mersenne numbers

The problem of finding all numbers of the form 2b − 1 (Mersenne numbers) which are triangular is equivalent:

{\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}&\ 2^{b}-1={\frac {y(y+1)}{2}}\\[2pt]\Longleftrightarrow &\ 8(2^{b}-1)=4y(y+1)\\\Longleftrightarrow &\ 2^{b+3}-8=4y^{2}+4y\\\Longleftrightarrow &\ 2^{b+3}-7=4y^{2}+4y+1\\\Longleftrightarrow &\ 2^{b+3}-7=(2y+1)^{2}\end{aligned}}}

The values of b are just those of n − 3, and the corresponding triangular Mersenne numbers (also known as Ramanujan–Nagell numbers) are:

${\displaystyle {\frac {y(y+1)}{2}}={\frac {(x-1)(x+1)}{8}}}$

for x = 1, 3, 5, 11 and 181, giving 0, 1, 3, 15, 4095 and no more (sequence A076046 in the OEIS).

## Equations of Ramanujan–Nagell type

An equation of the form

${\displaystyle x^{2}+D=AB^{n}}$

for fixed D, A , B and variable x, n is said to be of Ramanujan–Nagell type. A result of Siegel implies that the number of solutions in each case is finite.[2] The equation with A=1, B=2 has at most two solutions except in the case D=7 already mentioned. There are infinitely many values of D for which there are two solutions, including ${\displaystyle D=2^{m}-1}$.[3]

## Equations of Lebesgue–Nagell type

An equation of the form

${\displaystyle x^{2}+D=Ay^{n}}$

for fixed D, A and variable x, y, n is said to be of Lebesgue–Nagell type. This is named after M. Lebesgue (not Henri Lebesgue), who proved that the equation

${\displaystyle x^{2}+1=y^{n}}$

has no nontrivial solutions.[4]

Results of Shorey and Tijdeman imply that the number of solutions in each case is finite.[5] Bugeaud, Mignotte and Siksek solved equations of this type with A = 1 and 1 ≤ D ≤ 100.[6] In particular, the extended equation of the original Ramanujan-Nagell equation

${\displaystyle y^{n}-7=x^{2}\,}$

has the only positive integer solutions when x = 1, 3, 5, 11 and 181.

## References

1. ^ Saradha & Srinivasan (2008) p.208
2. ^ Saradha & Srinivasan (2008) p.207
3. ^ Saradha & Srinivasan (2008) p.208
4. ^ Lebesgue (1850)
5. ^ Saradha & Srinivasan (2008) p.211
6. ^ Bugeaud, Mignotte & Siksek (2006)
• M. Lebesgue (1850). "Sur l'impossibilité, en nombres entiers, de l'équation xm = y2 + 1". Nouv. Ann. Math. Sér. 1. 9: 178–181.
• S. Ramanujan (1913). "Question 464". J. Indian Math. Soc. 5: 130.
• W. Ljunggren (1943). "Oppgave nr 2". Norsk Mat. Tidsskr. 25: 29.
• T. Nagell (1948). "Løsning till oppgave nr 2". Norsk Mat. Tidsskr. 30: 62–64.
• T. Nagell (1961). "The Diophantine equation x2 + 7 = 2n". Ark. Mat. 30: 185–187. Bibcode:1961ArM.....4..185N. doi:10.1007/BF02592006.
• Yann Bugeaud; Maurice Mignotte; Samir Siksek (2006). "Classical and modular approaches to exponential Diophantine equations II. The Lebesgue–Nagell equation". Compos. Math. 142: 31–62. arXiv:math/0405220. doi:10.1112/S0010437X05001739.
• Shorey, T.N.; Tijdeman, R. (1986). Exponential Diophantine equations. Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics. 87. Cambridge University Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 0-521-26826-5. Zbl 0606.10011.
• Saradha, N.; Srinivasan, Anitha (2008). "Generalized Lebesgue–Ramanujan–Nagell equations". In Saradha, N. Diophantine Equations. Narosa. pp. 207–223. ISBN 978-81-7319-898-4.