Randolph Bryant (May 2, 1893 – April 24, 1951) was a United States federal judge.
Born in Sherman, Texas, Bryant received a B.A. from the University of Texas in 1913 and an LL.B. from the University of Texas School of Law in 1916. He was a Captain in the United States Army during World War I, from 1917 to 1919. He entered private practice in Sherman, Texas from 1919 to 1921, and was thereafter the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Texas from 1921 to 1931.
On December 3, 1930, Bryant was nominated by President Herbert Hoover to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas vacated by W. Lee Estes. Bryant was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 13, 1931, and received his commission on January 24, 1931. He served in that capacity until his death, in 1951.